This is only a test

THE BIRDS OF SOUTHEAST LOUISIANA AN ANNOTATED CHECKLIST Robert D. Purrington 1994 THE BIRDS OF SOUTHEAST LOUISIANA INTRODUCTION While neither as wild nor as mysterious as when Audubon collected in the woods, swamps, and marshes of Southeastern Louisiana, and bought birds in the markets to paint, this area will rarely fail to reward the patient and careful student of birds. Of course the inroads of civilization are everywhere: the forests are second-growth and many have been cleared forever. The wetlands shrink each year because of drainage, saltwater intrusion and erosion, the effects of oil exploration , and subsidence of the Mississippi River delta, due in part to leveeing of the river. We know that the riches of Southeast Louisiana are not inexhaustible--nor are they anywhere. And yet, inexorably, as the seasons change anew, hordes of migratory birds push through the area, moving south in fall to winter here or carry on to Central America, returning again in spring, just as they did a century and a half, or a millenium ago. And the productivity of the coastal marshes and estuaries continues to be so great that visitors from the north or inland United States are often dumfounded by the numbers of herons and gulls, particularly, which characterize these coastal habitats. It goes without saying that we know far more about the birds of the region than was known in Audubon's time, or even at the turn of the century, and we can record two or three times as many species in a day--say on a Christmas Count--as could have been counted then, without binoculars, telescopes, and modern transportation. And yet we know, or at least can guess (see, for example, the account below of the Lesser Golden Plover), that many of the species Audubon saw in abundance will never again be seen in such numbers. Sadly, a few species that were regular in the 19th century are extinct (or nearly so): Eskimo Curlew, Passenger Pigeon, Carolina Parakeet, and Ivory-billed Woodpecker (Bachman's Warbler, which may also be extinct, is another matter; it may never have been common anywhere). Some species have no doubt profitted by the disturbance of the natural landscape: starlings, house sparrows, and cattle egrets, unknown to Audubon, abound. But becasue of loss of habitat on their northern breeding grounds, the effects of pesticides everywhere, and the destruction of wintering habitat in Central and South America, many, if not most, migratory species are in declining numbers. SOUTHEASTERN LOUISIANA BIRDING And yet, all of this being said, Southeast Louisiana offers a remarkable diversity of birds for an area with so little topographical relief. With open ocean, gulf beach, coastal marsh, pine flats and uplands, bottomland hardwood forest, and cypress-tupelo swamp--not to mention hundreds of square miles of cleared pine woods, fields, and brushy, waste habitat, a remarkable number of species breed, winter, or stop on their migratory passages. Much of this diversity is typical of coastal areas anywhere, and similarly typical of coastal locations is the liklihood that serious searching will yield a rare vagrant at almost any time. While the gulf coast does not quite match the potential of either the Atlantic or Pacific coasts, and the opportunity for finding birds new to the U.S. avifauna is certainly less than there or along the nation's southwestern border, the variety is nonetheless impressive. Furthermore, Louisiana's wetlands--fresh, brackish, and salt marsh--are the most extensive in the country, and a good part of that habitat is in southeast Louisiana. A significant fraction of North American waterfowl winter in Louisiana marshes and a large proportion of most species of herons nest in the coastal and near-coastal marshes (see the species accounts). Since even before the time of Audubon, southeastern Louisiana has stimulated the imagination of ornithologists, naturalists, and a host of amateur students of birds. The records summarized in these pages include the names of Audubon, Bailey, Oberholser, Howell, Burleigh, and other intrepid observers from the early days of American ornithology. Not so well known are people like Allison, Beyer, Kohn, and Kopman, who first studied Louisiana birds in a systematic fashion in the early part of this century, and the journalist Stanley Clisby Arthur, who helped popularize Louisiana birds. From World War II into the 1970's the impetus came from George Lowery and Robert Newman and their students (Binford, Monroe, Gauthreaux, Able and others), and from the Louisiana Ornithological Society; most recently it has been Lowery's successor Van Remsen and the colleagues and students he has attracted who have carried on these traditions, even though most of the field work by LSU has been in south-central and southwest Louisiana. Recently (beginning in 1994), under the sponsorship of the Louisiana Natural Heritage Program, a Louisiana Breeding Bird Atlas project has been initiated, which will be completed by 1996 or thereabouts. As is true across the southern united states, the winter bird population greatly exceeds the breeding population, both in total numbers and in numbers of species (Table I). Massive migratory movements bring wintering birds into the area between July and December, and send them on their northward return between February and May or early June. These movements, along with those of the spring and fall migrants which stop here only long enough to build up their fat reserves, either in anticipation of trans-gulf migration or subsequent to it, frequently bring with them strays from the east or west. These vagrants, often immature birds, provide much of the excitement for the seasoned birder whose interest is in what one might think of as "birding at the margins," the pursuit of rarities and extra-limital records. Lying as it does on the central gulf coast, at the mouth of the Mississippi River, Southeast Louisiana is the first landfall for a significant fraction of the transgulf spring migrants whose breeding grounds lie in the northern United States and Canada; similarly, in fall southbound transients see no land for over 550 miles after crossing the Louisiana coast, so that many accumulate near the coast in preparation for the long transgulf flight. The host of transients which pass through the region during the brief, spectacular spring migration, and the more leisurely, but perhaps more interesting, fall migration, provide much of the excitment which brings birders to the coast each year between March and May in the spring and July and early November in fall. All-told, migration is taking place during at least eight months of the year, and, indeed, there is probably no month when no migrants are passing through Southeast Louisiana. During the peak of migration 25,000-80,000 birds cross each mile of coastline every day (Gauthreaux 1971) and several million migrants pass through Southeast Louisiana during a season. It is a paradox that in good weather in the spring(warm, balmy, with south winds- -known locally as "bluebird weather"), countless migrants reach the gulf coast but pass inland without landing, so that birding is often poor on the coast when migration is at its height. In bad weather, as when a cold front has penetrated south to the coast, especially if accompanied by rain, staggering numbers of migrants may be precipitated. In coastal or near-coastal localities such as Grand Isle or Venice, every tree and shrub will contain migrants, exhausted by the fight against unfavorable winds. Bad weather in the fall will have a similar grounding effect, especially if it comes during the hours of peak nocturnal migration, though the concentrations will usually be smaller than in spring. On the other hand, day-to-day birding is often better in fall. One has to add, sadly, that if the concentrations of spring migrants I have just described are not a thing of the past, they seem to be less frequent, apparently the result of declining populations of these migrants. Whether the cause is destruction of wintering habitat in central America, as is commonly assumed, or fragmentation of breeding habitat in the U.S and Canada, the effects are clear. During the height of spring migration there is probably not an hour of the day when migrants are not passing over Southeastern Louisiana, although the bulk of migration occurs between about 8 a.m. and 11 p.m. Under typical conditions transgulf migrants begin to arrive at the coast by early to mid-morning, the peak is reached between noon and 2 p.m., and by 6 p.m. the movement is essentially finished (Gauthreaux 1971). There is evidence that less than an hour after sunset the nocturnal flight from the coast begins, emptying the coastal woods of many of the birds which landed earlier in the day. This phenomenon, discovered by Hebrard (1968) and Gauthreaux, presumably does not occur when migrants, exhausted by the fight against unfavorable winds or rain, drop into the coastal woods. Field studies show that under these conditions, birds may feed for one to several days before continuing their northward trip. Under unusual conditions, the timing of the transgulf flight may be very different; on strong southerly winds the flight may begin to arrive before 6 a.m. and be essentially over by mid-afternoon, and few birds will land on the coast. With unfavorable conditions, when north winds or rain over the gulf delay the flight, the first migrants may arrive at noon or later and large numbers of migrants may be over the gulf at sunset. Under severe conditions, many simply do not make landfall (see the note in Am. Birds 47 (1993) 422, for example). Given normal conditions of light southerly winds, the flight time for most birds from Yucatan is probably 16-20 hours. Strong tailwinds may reduce this to as little as 10 hours and headwinds may prolong it to a length of 24 hours or more. As already noted, most of the birds do not land immediately in good weather, but continue inland for some distance, usually to the first extensive forests farther inland. Thus develops the "coastal hiatus", a strip of coastal and near coastal woods and marsh in which few migrants are found in good weather. New Orleans often appears to lie within the hiatus. Even in the forests in the vicinity of New Orleans and north of Lake Pontchartrain, where much of the transgulf flight is presumed to land, the density of transients in the absence of concentrating factors, may be only a few individuals per acre, a number easily overlooked. In the fall, the nature of migration and the effects of weather do not differ quite as markedly from that which is experienced well away from the coast. The number of migrants, swelled by birds of the year, is greater than in spring, a fact which is offset somewhat by the longer period of fall migration. Some pile-ups occur along the coast in fall, consisting of birds preparing to initiate the transgulf flight. Typically the largest movements in fall occur on north winds after the passage of a cool front, but whether large numbers of birds will be found in the field depends on whether there is rain or low ceiling; in many cases the good flying conditions simply empty the coastal woods . It should be mentioned that while the picture given above is generrally consistent with what one sees in the field, and has been the object of radar studies by Gauthreax (1971), much of the evidence is circumstantial, and some of the conclusions inferential at best. Although one never entirely tires of the ebb and flow of migration, most of the 200+ species which are involved occur year after year, moving south to winter, north to breed locally, or simply pass through on the way to breeding or wintering grounds. Certainly as interesting are the far less predictable movements of vagrants, especially from the western U.S., which accompany the regular migratory movements, especially in fall. Sporadic and unpredictable in character, and controlled by factors very poorly understood, this influx is the source of much of the excitement to be found in late fall and winter birding in coastal Louisiana. Species typically participating in this wandering include White-winged Dove, Groove-billed Ani, Vermilion Flycatcher, Western Kingbird, Scissor-tailed Flycatcher, Bewick's Wren, and Bullock's Oriole. Others, such as Burrowing Owl, Lesser Nighthawk, Ash-throated Flycatcher, Yellow-headed Blackbird, and Black-headed Grosbeak are somewhat less frequently seen. A large number of other western species have occurred one to a few times, of which some are Say's Phoebe, Brown-crested Flycatcher, Sage Thrasher, Lucy's Warbler, Black-throated Gray Warbler, Macgillivray's Warbler, Painted Redstart, Western Tanager, and Lark Bunting. The most dramatic example of this "vagrancy" involves the ten species of western hummingbirds which have occurred in Southeast Louisiana, mostly at feeders in fall and winter. Although Rufous and Black-chinned Hummingbirds are now known to be quite regular, there are now more than 50 records of Buff-bellied Hummingbird, several records of Broad-tailed, two records of Broad-billed Hummingbird, and one of Blue-throated. Calliope Hummingbird is now found in almost every winter, often at feeders in the Norco-Reserve area. There are also a handful of records of Allen's Hummingbird, although here identification is a problem. It is well known that most of these western vagrants are birds of the year and it is surmised that these young birds, lacking migratory experience, radiate from their breeding grounds erratically, or move laterally to the east after reaching the gulf coast , or perhaps engage in "mirror-image" migration to the southeast instead of southwest, and thus reach the checklist area. Studies of vagrants made at LSU suggest that many suffer from some pathology that might have disrupted their orientation and navigation ability. These vagrants also occur farther to the east in coastal Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, though in smaller numbers. It has been suggested that the Mississippi River delta acts as a vagrant trap, inhibiting their eastward movement. It should be noted that several species, including White-winged Dove, Groove-billed Ani, and Buff-bellied Hummingbird actually breed mostly to the southwest of this area and must move northeast along the gulf coast to reach Southeast Louisiana. Approximately 120 species breed in the area (Table I), a number which includes important numbers of herons, egrets, and ibis, which will be found breeding in heronries in the coastal marsh or in the bottomland hardwood swamps. Also typical of the gulf coastal states, but most especially of Louisiana, are nesting colonies of Laughing Gulls and Black Skimmers, plus seven species of terns: Gull-billed, Caspian, Royal, Sandwich, Forster's, Least, and Sooty. Several of these species nest only on the sand strand habitat of the barrier islands adjacent to the coastal marsh. Of these the Sooty Tern is especially interesting; there has been a small colony on the Chandeleur Islands (typically Stake, Curlew, Errol Islands), apparently since the 1930's, with the number of nesting pairs probably never exceeding 30. American Oystercatchers breed on these islands as well, and on the shell-rimmed islands in the marsh. Most of the breeding Reddish Egrets in Louisiana are to be found in the same areas, in small colonies on the barrier islands and at the seaward edge of the coastal marsh such as Lonsome Island. For information on colonial breeding birds of Louisiana, including those which breed in the marsh and in the swamps, see Portnoy (1977). The story of the Brown Pelican, the Louisiana state bird, is both tragic and encouraging. Formerly they bred all along the coast, from North Island to the Timbaliers, at least, in numbers approaching 80,000. Althoug the last nesting of native Brown Pelicans occurred in 1961, they were re-introduced from the Florida population in the 1970's, and are again common on the coast near Grand Isle, from at least the Timbaliers to Grand Isle and the Chandeleurs. Although pelagic birding on the northern gulf coast is distinctly less rewarding than on either the Atlantic or Pacific coasts, it continues to fascinate the more adventuresome birder and always offers the possibility of an extraordinary sighting. At least 16 species of strictly pelagic birds, including Sooty Tern, which also breeds, have been recorded in Southeast Louisiana and at least seven, perhaps eight or nine, can be considered regular: Wilson's Storm Petrel, Northern Gannet (winter), Audubon's Shearwater, Pomarine and Parasitic Jaeger, Bridled and Sooty Tern, Masked and perhaps Brown Boobies. Band-rumped Storm-Petrel now appears to be regular in very deep water off the mouth of the river. A pelagic trip in the late spring of 1990 yielded six of these species, including the second Long-tailed Jaeger for Louisiana, and another in 1995 turned up 39 storm-petrels, include up to two dozen Band-rumped Storm-Petrels. Of particular note, especially to visitors from other parts of the country, are the species typical of the pine flats north of Lake Pontchartrain, including Red-cockaded Woodpecker, Brown-headed Nuthatch, and Bachman's Sparrow. In winter this habitat also will yield Henslow's Sparrow, and perhaps Leconte's. Other species typical of this habitat in breeding season are Wild Turkey, Eastern Wood Pewee, Eastern Bluebird, and Yellow-throated Vireo. Similarly interesting is the creek and river bottom swamp habitat north of Lake Pontchartrain, especially in the Pear River bottoms. Notable species are Anhinga, Swallow-tailed Kite, and Swainsonn's Warbler, plus such common birds as Acadian Flycatcher, Wood Thrush, Red-eyed Vireo, Parula, Swainson's, Hooded, and Prothonotary Warblers, American Redstart, and Summer Tanager. On the scrubby edges of such habitat one finds Yellow-breasted Chat and Painted and Indigo Buntings. PHYSIOGRAPHY, BIOGEOGRAPHY Although Southeast Louisiana is part of the Gulf Coastal Plain and shares many of its characteristics, especially with respect to climate, the physiography and ecology of the area is dominated by the fact that Southeast Louisiana encompasses much of the great alluvial plain of the lower Mississippi River delta. This alluvial plain, with little relief, dips slightly gulfward and approximates sea-level throughout the lower portion. Each deltaic stream is bordered by natural levees formed by the deposition of sediment during flood periods. Away from these alluvial ridges, where the lands fall below the mean water table, are found cypress-tupelo swamps and marsh in fresh water areas, but only marsh in more saline areas. These wetlands, which do not drain into main streams, but rather are catch basins for overflow and rainfall, are drained by sluggish, meandering bayous with little natural levee; Viosca (1933) has termed these "swamp drainage bayous". In the Mississippi alluvial plain, which is part of the Southeastern Evergreen Forest region of Braun (1950), three kinds of bottomland forest may be recognized: swamp forest (cypress-tupelo), hardwood bottoms, and ridge bottoms. The swamp forest occupies land on which water stands throughout the year, except perhaps in midsummer. Its important trees are baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) , water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica), swamp tupelo (N. biflora) , water or carolina ash (Fraxinus carolinensis), and swamp red maple (Acer rubrum). Hall and Penfound (1939) described cypress-tupelo and swamp tupelo forests in Southeastern Louisiana in detail. The hardwood bottoms are subject to frequent overflow and are usually covered with water through the late winter and spring. The forest is characterized by a rich and varied flora, some of the dominant species being sweet gum (Liquidamber styraciflua) , red maple, swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii), water oak (Q. nigra) , overcup oak (Q. lyrata) , willow oak (Q. phellos), elm..., and sugarberry or hackberry (Celtis laevigata). The ridge bottoms, elevated a few feet or less above the general level of the bottoms are covered by water only during floods and contain some of the species of the hardwood bottoms along with a large number of oaks and hickories. Sweet gum is dominant and with it are oaks, shagbark hickory (Carya ovata), and pecan (Carya ....). The most extensive bottomland forest in Southeast Louisiana is in the flood plain of the Pearl River and the largest area of swamp forest is in the Pontchatoula Swamp at the northwest corner of Lake Pontchartrain. The soils of the alluvial plain are charateristically alkaline; in the non-alluvial swamps and pinelands north of Lake Pontchartrain, on the northern edge of the alluvium, the soil, as in the gulf coastal plain as a whole, is acidic. The upland swamp forests are dominated by pond cypress (Taxodium ascendans), swamp tupelo, pond pine (Pinus serotina), and slash pine (P. elliottii). The better drained areas of the pine lands support a forest of longleaf pine (P. palustris) mixed with loblolly (P. taeda) or slash pine. A loblolly-shortleaf pine (P. taeda-P. echinata) association is also found just to the north of Lake Pontchartrain. The longleaf pine forest (the community largely responsible for the name "Southeastern Evergreen Forest") is a fire sub-climax forest, stabilized by recurring fires, although longleaf pine is less common than it once was. The pinelands of Southeatern Louisiana have been treated by Pessin (1933) and by Penfound and Watkins (1937). The other physiographic areas of the Florida Parishes, while for the most part not included in the area covered by this work, are of sufficient interest and near enough to deserve enumeration: hardwood uplands (northwest of Lake Maurepas), longleaf pine hills (found at the northern edge of the region in St. Tammany and Tangipahoa Parishes and extending northward into Mississippi), and mixed shortleaf and hardwood uplands (the Felicianas). Also emphasizing the evergreen aspect of the southeastern forest are the maritime live oak forests in which live oak (Quercus virginiana) is pure or predominant but whose flora is still rather diverse. Viosca (1933) states that "live oaks, draped with spanish moss, are the dominant trees of the coastal ridges but give way as we proceed inland to a mixed forest consisting chiefly of live oak, water oak, red or sweek gum, elm, hackberry, magnolia, often with an understory of dwarf palmeto or switch cane or both." Penfound and Howard (1940) described an evergreen oak forest in the vicinity of New Orleans. A small amount of beech-magnolia forest, a mesophytic hardwod association containing Ameriican beech (Fagus gradifolia) , a variety of oaks, and magnolia, is found on the north side of Lake Pontchartrain. The batture willow forests, occupying the land between the natural (or man-made) levee and the water of the larger streams in the area (in particular, the Mississippi River), are dominated by black willow (Salix nigra) , hackberry, and cottonwood (Populus deltoides). The marshes of Southeastern Louisiana which are classified as fresh, brackish, intermediate, and saline, total over 4 million acres (6000 squre miles) and cover some 60% of the checklist area. The fresh marshes are characterized by broadleaf cattail (Typha latifolia), giant bulrush (Scirpus californicus), with maiden cane (Panicum hemitomon). bull tongue (Sagittaria sp.), wiregrass (Sparrtina patens), alligatorweed (Alternanthera philoxeroides), and sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) major consitituents in places. In the intermediate marsh, wiregrass and roseau cane (Phragmites australis) predominate; the most important species of the brackish marsh are wiregrass and saltgrass (Distichlis spicata), but a great variety of species are present. The coastal salt marshes are dominated by oystergrass (Spartina alterniflora), black rush (Juncus roemerianus), salicornia sp., and saltgrass, and show a much lower diversity than the brackish and intermediate marshed. Black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) is often a feature of the salt marsh--when freezes have not suppressed it--and forms a salt water swamp. The classic works on the marshes of Southeastern Louisiana are Penfound and Hathaway (1938) and O"Neil (1949). The Vegetaitive Type Map of the Louisiana Coastal Marshes (Chabreck and Lanscombe, 1978) is a good source of information on the distribution of marsh types in Southeastern Louisiana. CLIMATE The climate of Southeastern Louisiana is semi-tropical and coastal, with high rainfall and humidity, warm summers and mild winters. The growing season is about 326 days. Severe frosts are uncommon and below Lake Pontchartrain are quite rare. At New Orleans the mean annual termperature is 69.5o, with a mean low of 59.8o and a mean high of 79.8o. The coldest month is January, with a mean of 55.5o (45.9-66.1), while the hottest is July, with a mean of 82.6o (72.9-91.9). The all-time temperature extremes at New Orleans have been 7o and 102o . North of the lake the extremes are somewhat more severe, with a high of 105o. Average annual rainfall is about 60 inches, distributed fairly uniformly throughout the year (see the climogram, below). The wettest month is July, with an average of 8.12 inches, and the driest is October, averaging 3.15 inches. TOPOGRAPHY With the exception of the extreme northern edge of the region, where the pine uplands begin, Southeastern Louisiana is essentially flat, sloping slightly toward the gulf at an average of about 2 feet per mile. Below the latitude of New Orleans few elevations exceed 5 feet and aside from the alluvial and stranded beach ridges, the level of the land approximates sea level. Only well north of Lake Pontchartrain, in St. Tammany and Tangipahoa Parishes, is there any significant relief, and a maximum elevation of 175 feet is reached just beyond the extreme northern boundary of the checklist area. The mean elevation is about 15 feet, although the average elevation of that part of the area exclusive of the two northernmost parishes is about one foot. CHECKLIST AREA Although we will not define the area covered by this account with great precision, in part becauses it is necessarily determined by cultural rather than biological considerations (parish boundaries, etc.), and because we shall be liberal in our interpretation of what southeastern Louisiana is, especially if it seems worthwhile to recount an important or interesting record, It is generally "Southeastern Louisiana," or perhaps "New Orleans and Vicinity," which might be regarded as the area which can be birded from New Orleans in one day. On the southwest, the natural boundary is Bayou Lafourche, or, what is virtually the same thing, the western edge of Lafourche Parish; northward the area includes St. John, Tangipahoa, and Washington Parishes, the latter abutting Mississippi, west to approximatlely 90 45' W. longitude. To the south we include, somewhat arbitrarily, those offshore waters accessible in a day-long pelagic trip from Venice or Grand Isle, i.e., to about 28 N. latitude, about 60-70 miles offshore. Thus defined, the area covered is about one by three degrees, or nearly 12,000 square miles, a third of which are offshore waters. Lake Pontchartrain and Lake Borgne encompass another 1000 square miles of open water. All or part of nine Louisiana parishes are included, but of course the seasonal information has a much wider applicability. The Reserve-Laplace area is not given justice in this account, for the somewhat paradoxical reason that it is quite heavily birded and it is impractical to keep up with local records from that area. Where possible, important records are included. CHARACTERISTIC BREEDING BIRDS OF VARIOUS HABITATS In all, at least 411 species of birds have been recorded in Southeast Louisiana on one occasion or another (plus 18 "hypothetical" species), of which less than 70 are permanent residents; summer visitors swell this number to about 120 breeding species (Table I). In this section, we list characteristic breeding birds of several habitats typical of Southeastern Louisiana: hardwood bottoms and cypress swamp, pineflats, coastal marsh, fields and brush, residential and woodland, and sand strand. These lists are meant to characterize the birdlife of these habitats rather than to be exhaustive. Hardwood Bootoms and Cypress-Tupelo Swamp Anhinga Yellow-crowned Hight Heron White-eyed Vireo White Ibis Red-eyed Vireo Wood Duck Parula Warbler American Swallow-tailed Kite Yellow-throated Warbler Wild Turkey Swainson's Warbler Barred Owl Prothonotary Warbler Pileated Woodpecker Kentucky Warbler Acadian Flycatcher Hooded Warbler Carolina Wren American Redstart Carolina Chickadee Summer Tanager Tufted Titmouse Wood Thrush Yellow-billed Cuckoo Pinewoods: Red-headed Woodpecker Pine Warbler Red-cockaded Woodpecker Prairie Warbler Eastern Wood Pewee Blue Grosbeak Brown-headed Nuthatch Bachman's Sparrow Eastern Bluebird Yellow-throated Vireo Marsh: Great Blue Heron Clapper Rail Great Egret Purple Gallinule Snowy Egret Common Moorhen Cattle Egret American Coot Tricolored Heron Willet Green-backed Heron Black-necked Stilt Little Blue Heron Forster's Tern Black-crowned Night Heron Fish Crow Least Bittern Marsh Wren Glossy Ibis Common Yellowthroat White-faced Ibis Red-winged Blackbird White Ibis Boat-tailed Grackle Mottled Duck Seaside Sparrow King Rail Fields and Brush: Cattle Egret Eastern Meadowlark Bobwhite Red-winged Blackbird Mourning Dove Indigo Bunting Loggerhead Shrike Painted Bunting Common Yellowthroat Rufous-sided Towhee Yellow-breasted Chat Sand Stand: American Oystercatcher Least Tern Wilsonn's Plover Royal Tern Laughing Gull Sandwich Tern Gull-billed Tern Black Skimmer Sooty Tern Common Nighthawk Residential, woods: Mississippi Kite Blue Jay Red-shouldered Hawk Common Crow Broad-winged Hawk Fish Crow Kestrel Carolina Chickadee Yellow-billed Cuckoo Tufted Titmouse Barn Owl Carolina Wren Screech Owl Northern Mockingbird Great Horned Owl Brown Thrasher Common Nighthawk American Robin Chimney Swift Eastern Bluebird uby-throated Hummingbird Blue-gray Gnatcatcher Common Flicker European Starling Red-bellied Woodpecker White-eyed Vireo Hairy Woodpecker Summer Tanager Downy Woodpecker Northern Cardinal Eastern Kingbird Orchard Oriole Great Crested Flycatcher Common Grackle Purple Martin Brown-headed Cowbird Rufous-sided Towhee Table 1 SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE BIRDS OF SOUTHEASTERN LOUISIANA Winter Visitors 132 Summer Visitors 40 Migrants 51 Permanent Residents 70 Casual or accidental in winter 51 Casual or accidental migrants 10 Non-breeding summer pelagics 7 Migrant pelagics 3 Introduced (recent) 1 Other accidentals 3 Indeterminate 1 Post-breeding vagrants 2 TOTAL 411 species Hypothetical 18 At least 120 species are known to breed, or have bred, in the checklist area. Of the 399 species known to have occurred in Southeastern Louisiana, approximately 300 occur "regularly," attesting to the considerable diversity and richness of habitat available. BIBLIOGRAPHY Able, K.P., A radar study of the altitude of nocturnal passerine migration, Bird-banding 41(4): 228-290 (1970). _____, Fall migration in coastal Louisiana and the evolution of migration patterns in the gulf region, Wilson Bull. 84(3):231-242 (1972). Alexander, W.B., Birds of the Ocean, 2nd ed., New York, Van Rees Press, 1954. Allen, C.M., Grasses of Louisiana, University of Southwestern Louisiana, 1975. American Birds and Audbon Field Notes, Central-Southern Region, 1947-1991, various authors. Arthur, Stanley Clisby, The Birds of Louisiana, Bull. La. Dept. of Conservation, 5: 1-80 (1918). _____, The Birds of Louisiana, Bull. La. Dept. Conservation, 20:1-598 (1931). Atwood, E.L., Recent interesting Louisiana records, Auk 60:453-455 (1943). Audubon, John James, The Birds of America, New York, Dover, reprint of 1840 ed. Bailey, A.M. Birds of the Louisiana gulf coast, Aud. Mag. 47: 166-172 (1945). _____, and E.G. Wright, Birds of southern Louisiana, Wilson Bull. 43: 114-142 and 190- 192 (1931). Bateman, Hugh A., Clapper Rail studies on Grand Terre Island, Jefferson Parish, Louisiana, thesis, Louisiana State University, 1965. Behre, Ellinor, Annotated list of the fauna of the Grand Isle region, 1928-1946, Occasional Papers of the Marine Laboratory, Louisiana State University, 6: 1-66 (1950). Bent, A.C., Report of A.C. Bent on the Breton Is.and Reservation, Bird Lore 12: 280- 282 (1910). _____, Life Histories of North American Marsh Birds, New York, Dover, 1963. Reprint of the 1926 edition. _____, Life Histories of North American Gulls and Terns, New York, Dover,1986 reprint of the 1921 edition. While all of the Bent volumes contain references to occurrences in Southeastern Louisiana, this volume is especially interesting because of the numerous references to colonial nesting in coastal Louisiana, including historically interesting photographs. Beyer, George E., The avifauna of Louisiana, with an Annotated List of the birds of the state, Proc. Louisiana Soc. Nat. Hist. for 1897-1899, 76-120 (1899). _____, Andrew Allison, and H.H. Kopman, List of Birds of Louisiana, Auk 23: 1-15 (1906), 24: 314-321 (1907), 25: 173-180 and 439-448 (1908). Bonck, J. and W.T. Penfound, Plant succession on abandoned farmland in the vicinity of New Orleans, Louisiana, Am. Mid. Nat. 33: 520-529 (1945). Bowdish, B.S., Ornithological miscellany from Audubon wardens, Auk 26: 116-128 (1909). Blake, E.R., Manual of Neotropical Birds, Vol. I, Chicago, U. of Chicago Press, 1977. Braun, E.L., Deciduous Forests of Eastern North America, Toronot, BBlakiston, 1950. Brockman,...Trees of North America, New York, Golden Press, 1968. Brown, C.A., Plants observed on an excursion to Grand Isle, La., Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 57: 509-513 (1930). _____, Louisiana Trees and Shrubs, Bull. La. Forestry Comm. 1: 1-262 (1945). Bullis, H.R., Transgulf migration, spring 1952, Auk 71: 298-305 (1954). _____, and F.C. Lincoln, A trans-gulf migration, Auk 69: 34-39 (1952). Burleigh, T.D., The birdlife of the gulf coast region of Mississippi, Occas. Papers Mus. Zool., Louisiana State Unversity, 20: 324-490 (.....). _____, A new Barn Swallow from the gulf coast of the United States, Occas. Papers Mus. Zool. Louisiana State University, 11: 179-183 (1942). Chabreck, R.H., T. Joanen, and A.W. Palmisano, Vegetative Type Map of teh Louisiana Coastal Marshes, Louisiana Wildlife and Fisheries Comm., Baton Rouge, 1968. Latest version is R.H. Chabreck and G. Linscombe, 1978. Chabreck, R.H. Vegetation, water, and soil characteristics of the Louisiana coastal region, LSU Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull 664 (1972). Clapp, R.B. and R.C. Banks, Marine Birds of the Southeastern United States and Gulf of Mexico, Part I, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, FWS/OBS-81-01, 1982..... Conner, W.H. and J.W. Day, Productivity and composition of a baldcypress-water tupelo site and a bottomland hardwood site in a Louisiana swamp, Am. J. Bot. 64: 1354- 1364 (1976). Duncan, C.D. and Havard, R.W., Pelagic birds of the northern Gulf of Mexico, Am. Birds 34: 122-132 (1980). Eggler, W.A., Louisiana Coastal Marsh Ecology, LSU Coastal Studies Inst. Contract 61- 2, Report 14. Eleuterius, L.N., The marshes of Mississippi, Castanea 37(3): 153-169 (1972). _____, Tidal Marsh Plants of Mississippi, Mississippi Alabama Sea Grant Consortium Pub. No. MASGP-77-039... _____, Tidal Marsh Plants, Pelican Press, Gretna, LA, 1990. Ewan, J.A., A bibliography of Louisiana botany, Southwestern La. J. 7: 1-83 (1968). Eyles, D.E. and J.L. Robertson, A Guide and Key to the Aquatic Plants of the Southeastern United States, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Circular 158. Reprint of Public Health Bulletin 286 (1944). Fassett, N.C., A Manual of Aquatic Plants, U. of Wisconsin, Madison, 1957. Fernald, M.L., Gray's Manual of Botany, New York, American Book Co., 1950. Finch, D.W., W.C. Russell, and E.V. Thompson, Pelagic birds in the Gulf of Maine, Am. Birds 32: 140-155 (1978). Fisk, H.N., Geological Investigations of the Alluvial Valley of the Lower Mississippi River, Miss. R. Comm., Vicksburg, 1944. _____, E. McFarlan, C.R. Kolb, and L.J. Wilbert, Sedimentary framework of the modern Mississippi delta, J. Sedimentary Petrology 24: 76-99 (1954). Fritts, Thomas H. and Robert P. Reynolds, Pilot Study of the Marine Mammals, Birds, and Turtles in OCS Areas of the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. F&WS, Office of Biological Services, FWS/OBS-81/36 (1981). Gandy, D.E. and W.H. Turcotte, Catalogue of Mississippi Bird Records, Vol. 1, Miss. Game and Fish Comm., 1970. Gauthreaux, Sidney A., A radar and direct visual study of passerine migration in Southern Louisiana, Auk 88: 343-365 (1971). _____, Weather radar quantification of bird migration, Bioscience 20: 17-20 (1970). _____, and K. P. Able, Wind and the direction of nocturnal songbird migration, Nature 228:: 476-477 (1970). _____, Nocturnal songbird migration, Nature 230: 580 (1971). Godfrey, W.E. The Birds of Canada, Natl. Mus. Can. Pub. No. 203, 1966. Gosselin, M. and N. David, Field identification of Thayer's Gull (Larus thayeri) in Eastern North America, Am. Birds 29: 1059-1066 (1975). Gosselink, J.G., An Ecological Characterization Study of the Chenier Plain Ecosystem of Louisiana and Texas, Vol I, Narrative, U.S. F&WS FWS/OBS-78/9 (1979). Gould, E. and J. Ewan, Phytogeographic and ecologic relationships of the flora of Breton Island, Louisiana, Tulane Stud. Zool.. Botany 19: 26-36 (1975). Hall, T.J., An ecological study of the cypress-gum community in the Pearl River valley, Proc. La. Acad. Sci. 4 (1938). _____, and W.T. Penfound, A phytosociological study of a cypress-gum swamp in Southeastern Louisiana, Am. Midl. Nat. 21: 378-399 (1939). _____, A phytosociological study of a Nyssa biflora consocies in Southeastern Louisiana, Am. Midl. Nat. 22: 369-375 (1939). Hamel, Paul and Sidney A. Gauthreaux, The field identification of Bachman's Warbler, Am. Birds 36: 235-240 (1982). Hayman, Peter, John Marchant, and Tony Prater, Shorebirds, Houghton Mifflin, 1986. Harrison, Peter, Seabirds, Houghton-Mifflin, 1983. Harshenberger, J. W., Phytogeographic Survey of North America, New York, G. E. Stechert & Co., 1911. Hebrard, J., The nightly initiation of passerine migration in spring: a direct visual study, Ibis 113: 8-18 (1971). Hitchcock, A. S., Manual of the Grasses of the United States, USDA Misc. Pub. 200, 2nd Ed. revised by A. Chase, New York, Dover, 1951. Hopkins, E. S., A visit to our bird islands, La. Conservation Review 2 (10): 18-23, 38-39 1932). Hotchkiss, Neil, Common marsh plants of the United States and Canada, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Resource Pub. 93 (1970). Howard, J. A. and W. T. Penfound, Vegetational studies in areas of sedimentation in the Bonnet Carre Floodway, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 69: 281-282 (1942). Huguley, D. and L. N. Eleuterius, A floristic comparison of mainland and barrier island dunes in Mississippi, J. Miss. Acad. Sci. 21: 71-79 (1976). Humm, H. J. Seagrasses of the northern gulf coast, Bull Mar. Sci. Gulf Caribb. 6: 305- 308 (1956). Imhof, T. A., Alabama Birds, 2nd Ed., U. of Alabama Press, 1976. King, K. A., E. L. Flickinger, and H. H. Hildebrand, The decline of Brown Pelicans on the Louisiana and Texzas Gulf Coast, Southwest Naturalist 21: 417-431 (1977). King, W. B., Seabirds of the Tropical Pacific Ocean, Preliminary Smithsonian Identification Manual, U.S. Natl. Mus., Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D.C., 1967. Kopman, H. H., List of the birds of Louisiana, Part VI, Auk 32: 15-29 (1915), Part VII, Auk 32: 183-194 (1915). _____, Report of exploration of seabird colonies on the coast of Louisiana west of the Mississippi River, made in the interests of the National Association of Audubon Societies, May 15, 1907 to June 21, 1907, Bird Lore 9: 233-240 (1907). _____, Inspection of Breton Island Reservation, Louisiana, August 3, 1908, Bird Lore 10: 229-231 (1908). _____, Inspection of East Timbalier Reservation, Louisiana, Bird Lore 10: 231 (1908). _____, Wild Acres , New York, Dutton, 1946. Lehman, Paul, The identification of Thayer's Gull in the Field, Birding 12: 198-210 (1980). Lemaire, R. J., A preliminary annotated checklist of the vascular plants of the marshes and ncluded higher lands of St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana, Proc. La. Acad. Sci. 24: 56-70 (1961). _____, A preliminary annotated checklist of the vascular plants of the Chandeleur and adjacent islands, St. Bernard and Plaquemines Parishes, Louisiana, Proc. La. Acad. Sci. 24: 116-122 (1961). Le Page du Pratz, A. S., Histoire de la Louisiane, Paris, 1758. Lloyd, F. E., and Tracy, S. M., The insular flora of Mississippi and Louisiana, Bull Torrey. Bot. Club. 28: 61-101 (1901). Lowery, G. H., Jr., Louisiana Birds, 3rd Ed., Baton Rouge, LSU Press, 1974. _____, Trans-gulf spring migration of birds and the coastal hiatus, Wilson Bull. 57: 92- 121 (1945). _____, Evidence of trans-gulf migration, Auk 63: 175-211 (1946). _____, A quantitative study of the nocturnal migration of birds, U. Kansas Publ. Mus. at. Hist. 3: 361-472 (1951). _____, and R. J. Newman, The birds of the Gulf of Mexico, Fishery Bull. 89, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 55: 519-540 (1954). _____, A continent-wide view of migration on four nights in October, Auk 83: 547-586 (1966). McAtee, W. L., T. D. Burleigh, G. H. Lowery, Jr., and H. L. Stoddard, Eastward migration through the gulf states, Wilson Bull. 56: 152-160 (1944). Martin, A. C., H. S. Sim, and A. L. Nelson, American Wildlife and Plants, New York, Dover, 1961. Meanley, Brooke, Natural History of the King Rail, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, North American Fauna, No. 67, 1969. _____, Swamps, Riverbottoms, and Canebrakes, Barre, MA, Barre Pubs., 1972. _____, Natural History of the Swainson's Warbler, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, North American Fauna, No. 69, 1971. Miller, G. and S. Jones, The vascular flora of Ship Island, Mississippi, Castanea 32: 84- 99 (1967). Montz, G. D., A vegetational study of the Timbalier and Isle Derniers barrier islands, Louisiana, Proc. La. Acad. Sci. 40: 59-69 (1977). Muenscher, W. C., Aquatic Plants of the United States, Ithaca, Comstock Publ., 1944. Norman, D. and R. D. Purrington, The demise of the Brown Pelican in Louisiana, La. Ornith. Soc. News 55: 3-6 (1970). Oberholser, H. C., The Bird Life of Louisiana, La. Dept. Cons. 28, 1938. _____, The Bird Life of Texas, E. B. Kinkaid, ed., Austin, U. of Texas, 1974. O'Neil, Ted, The Muskrat in the Louisiana Coastal Marshes, La. Dept. Wildlife and Fisheries, New Orleans, 1949. Pessin, L. J. and T. D. Burleigh, Notes on the forest biology of Horn Island, Mississippi, Ecol. 22: 70-78 (1941). Penfound, W. T., Southern swamps and marshes, Bot. Rev. 18: 313-336 (1952). _____ and E. S. Hathaway, Plant communities in the marshlands, Ecol. Mon. 8: 1-56 ( (1938). _____, and M. E. O'Neil, The vegetation of Cat Island, Mississippi, Ecol. 15: 1-16 (1934). _____, and A. G. Watkins, Phytosociological studies in the pinelands of Southeastern Louisiana, Ecol. Mon. 8: 1-56 (1938). Peterson, R. T., Field Guide to the Birds of Texas and Adjacent States, Boston, Houghton- Mifflin, 1960. Portnoy, J. W., Nesting Colonies of Seabirds and Wading Birds--Coastal Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, FWS/OBS-77/07 (1977). Purrington, R. D., Nesting of the Sooty Tern in Louisiana, Auk 87: 159-160 (1970). _____, The tern colony of Curlew Island, LA, Amer. Birds 42: 1238-40 (1988). _____, Nesting of the cliff swallow in Louisiana, J. La. Ornith. 1: 24-26 (1988). Putnam, J. A. and H. Bull, Trees of the Bottomlands of the Mississippi River DElta Region, Southern For. Exp. Stat. Occas. Papers 27, 1932. Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles, and C. R. Bell, Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas, Chapel Hill, U. North Carolina, 1964. Richmond, E. A., The fauna and flora of Horn Island, Mississippi, Gulf Res. Reports 1: 59-106 (1962). _____, A supplement to the fauna and flora of Horn Island, Mississippi, Gulf Res. Reports 2: 213-254 (1968). Rowlett, R. A., Observation of marine birds and mammals in the northern Chesapeake Bight, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, FWS/OBS-80/04 (1980). Russell, R. J., Physiography of Lower Mississippi River Delta, La., Dept. of Conserv. Geol. Survey, Geol. Bull 8 : 1-199 (1936). St. Amant, L. S., Louisiana Wildlife Inventory, La. Wildlife and Fisheries Comm., New Orleans, 1959. Sanderson, G. C., ed., Management of Migrating Shore and Upland Game Birds in North America, International Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, Washington, D.C., 1977. Shelford, F. P., F. B. Phleger, and T. H. van Andel, Recent Sediments, Northwest Gulf of Mexico, Am. Soc. of Pet. Geologists, Tulsa, 1960. Smith, M. M., Louisiana Waterfowl Population Study, Final Report June 1949-June 1961, Louisiana Wildlife and Fisheries Comm, New Orleans, 1961. Stevenson, Henry M., Jr., The relative magnitude of the trans-gulf and circum-gulf migration, Wilson Bull. 69: 39-77 (1957). Stewart, R. E. and C. S. Robbins, Birds of Maryland and the District of Columbia, North American Avifauna, No. 62, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1958. Sundell, E., A bibliography of Louisiana botany, 1951-1975, Tulane Stud. Zool. Bot. 21: 1-66 (1979). Taylor, A. M., Some ecological habits in the Longleaf Pine flats of Louisiana, Bull., T orrey Bot. Club. 57: 155-172 (1927). Thorne, R. F. Flowering plants of the waters and shores of the Gulf of Mexico, Fishery Bull. 89, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 55: 193-202 (1954). Treadwell, R. C., Sedimentology and Ecology of Southeastern Coastal Louisiana, Tech. Rep. No. 6, Coastal Studies Inst., LSU, Contribution 55-1, Sept. 1955. Tuck, G, and H. Heinzel,A Field Guide to the Seabirds of Britain and the World, London, Collins, 1978. ..Viet and ...Jonsson, Field identification of smaller sandpipers within the genus Calidris, Amer. Birds 38: 853-876 (1984). Viosca, P., Louisiana Out-of-Doors, New Orleans, 1933. van Beek, J. L., et al, An Introduction to the Environmental Literature of the Mississippi Deltaic Plain Region, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, FWS/OBS-79/30 (1981). Walker, R. E., Biotic succession in a coastal salt marsh, Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci. 20: 95-97 (1940). Watson, G. E. Seabirds of the Tropical Atlantic Ocean, Washington, D.C., Smithsonian Press, 1966. Wharton, C. H., et al, The Ecology of Bottomland Hardwood Swamps of the Southeast, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, FWS/OBS-81/37 (1982). Wicker, K. M., et al, Mississippi Deltaic Plain Region Ecological Characterization: A Habitat Mapping Study. User's Guide to the Maps. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, FWS/OBS-79/07... Williams, L. E., Jaegers in the Gulf, Auk 82: 19-25 (1965). Williams, S. G. Checklist of the Birds of the Upper Texas Coast, Houston Outdoor Nature Club, 1962. THE BIRDS OF SOUTHEASTERN LOUISIANA ORDER Gaviiformes
RED-THROATED LOON (Gavia stellata) HYPOTHETICAL (Accidental in Winter)
The only record of this species is the report of one on Lake Pontchartrain on March 12, 1966 (JK). No details are available on this record and there are but a handful of other records for Louisiana. While it should be looked for on Lake Pontchartrain, great care should be taken in its identification. Of the vagrant loons which might turn up here (including, especially, the Arctic/Pacific Loon) these would be the easiest to identify.
COMMON LOON (Gavia immer) Regular, but uncommon, in winter
The Common Loon can usually be found in small numbers (1-5) along either shore of Lake Pontchartrain in winter, from mid-November on. Some searching may be necessary along the south shore and numbers vary considerably from one year to another. Loons are somewhat more common on the north shore of the lake, e.g., Mandeville harbor or Fontainbleau St. Pk. Often one or two can be found on Bayou St. John adjacent to City Park. Although most individuals are gone by mid-March, late April or early May records are not extraordinary. "Large" movements have occasionally been noted in early November. Common Loons are also encountered over or near the gulf, especially at Grand Isle, but occasionally on the river near Venice. On at least three occasions, Common Loons have been heard calling. There are at least eight records of "summering" loons, usually in basic (winter) plumage: June 5, 1933 in Breton Sound (AMB--2); May 31, 1957 on Chandeleur Sound (RJN,AD--calling); June 12, 1971, Chandeleur Sound (RJN,MM,RDP); June 22, 1973, North Island (NN,RJN,m.ob.); Aug. 2, 1982, Lake Pontchartrain (MM); Aug. 14, 1987, New Orleans (NN); July 15, 1989, Lake Pontchartrain (RDP); June 30-July 2, 1991, Mandeville (RFC,P. Siegert). The August records are two of perhaps only three Louisiana records for that month. Expected dates of wintering are November 1 to May 1; extreme dates: Sept. 16, 1984 Mandeville (JH) and May 19, 1978 New Orleans (NN).

ORDER Podicipediformes
FAMILY Podicipedidae GREBES
PIED-BILLED GREBE (Podilymbus podiceps) Common in winter; uncommon to rare breeding bird
Although Pied-billed Grebes are not common in summer, their occurrence at this season is frequent enough to make accurate determination of arrival and departure dates for wintering individuals difficult. For example a Pied-billed Grebe summered on Bayou St. John in 1985 (AS) and have sometimes bred successfully in rather large numbers in the ponds on US 11 in the eastern part of the city. Expected dates of wintering are September 10 to April 15. HORNED GREBE (Podiceps auritus) Uncommon to rare in winter
Careful scanning of Lake Pontchartrain at New Orleans will frequently yield a Horned Grebe, but the species is considerably more common on the north shore of the lake, where often small flocks are seen. Very occasionally an individual is seen on Bayou St. John. Although this is the "common" Podiceps grebe in Southeast Louisiana, care should be taken in identification. Maximum concentration: 500+ at Mandeville on March 12, 1995 (DPM, et al). Expected dates of wintering are November 15 to March 1; extreme dates of occurrence: Oct. 11, 1980 New Orleans (MM,DM) ...1988 (MM)
RED-NECKED GREBE (Podiceps grisegena) Accidental in winter
The only record of this grebe, which in the North America primarily occurs in the Pacific Northwest, Western Canada, and Alaska, is of one seen on March 11, 1995 at Mandeville harbor (SWC,DLD). There are several reports for Sw. Louisiana, some of dubious reliability.
EARED GREBE (Podiceps nigricollis) Occasional in winter
Southeastern Louisiana is near the extreme eastern edge of the Eared Grebe's wintering range; it is regular in other areas of the state, and apparently even at the Hattiesburg, MS sewage ponds, but is rare in southeast Louisiana. There are 16 records, of which the dated ones are: Mar. 10, 1961 New Orleans (SAG); Nov. 22, 1969 Mandeville (RJN); Sept. 11, 1976 Fourchon Pass, Lafourche Par. (RH,RJS); Oct. 5, 1976 Reserve (MW); Jan 11-15, 1978 New Orleans (JR); Oct. 8, 1980 Reserve (MW); Dec. 26- 31 New Orleans (GS,DM, et al); Nov. 15, 1986 Mandeville (MM,DM); Dec. 28, 1986 New Orleans (RDP,PS); winter 1990-91 Fourchon Rd...; Feb. 22?, 1991, New Orleans (AS,GS,PL,SF); Dec. 26, 1992, New Orleans (....--2). As mentioned above, care should be exercise in distinguishing this species from the previous one. Extreme dates are Sept. 11, 1976, Fourchon Pass (RH,RJS) and Mar. 10, 1961 New Orleans (SAG).
WESTERN GREBE (Aechmophorus occidentalis) Accidental in winter
The sole record of this species is of one on the Mississippi River just upriver of the Mississippi River bridge at New Orleans, November 3-6, 1971 (MM,m.ob.), the first record for Louisiana. The photographs (RDP; see AFN 26:74 (1972)) indicate that this was an individual of the dark morph now known as "Western Grebe," the more sedentary light form being "Clark's Grebe."
ORDER Procellariiformes
FAMILY Procellariidae
For information on records of the tubenoses from the northern gulf, one should consult Duncan and Havard (1980), Lowery and Newman (1954), Oberholser's The Bird Life of Texas, and Clapp, et all (1982).
Cory's Shearwaters were recorded on aerial transect studies over the northern Gulf of Mexico, 130-180 miles west to southwest of Grand Isle on Oct. 22, 23, and 25, 1980 (Wayne Hoffmann, pers. comm.). It is not clear from recent records whether this, or the following species, should be considered most likely off the northern gulf coast (See Clapp, et al, 1982), though it is the opinion of Dwight Peake, who has more experience in both Louisiana and Texas waters than anyone else believes that Cory's is the most likely. There are at least a dozen records of Cory's Shearwater off the northern gulf coast. At the very least, recent coastal Texas records, a record for Sw. Louisiana (1991), and Peake's studies, make it imperative that the possiblity of Cory's be taken into account when identifying any large shearwater.
GREATER SHEARWATER (Puffinus gravis) Rare to occasional offshore in late summer
Our understanding of the distribution of pelagic species off the Louisiana coast has grown slowly since the early 1970's; yet still relatively little is known about these species, owing to the fact that coverage is infrequent and irregular. Much work needs to be done on the temporal distribution and frequency of this and other pelagics, and on the question of probable distribution over the continental shelf and near-shelf waters off the Mississippi delta. Little is known of the effects of such canyons as Mississippi canyon, cold upwelling, etc. It is possible, however, that the Greater Shearwater is regular in small numbers off the Louisiana coast, a conclusion supported by recent records off the northwest Florida and Alabama coasts (Duncan and Havard, 1980). The reader is reminded that Cory's Shearwater is also a possibility. Refer to Finch, et al (....) or to Harrison (1983) for identification details. Of 36 records of Greater Shearwaters in Clapp, et al (1982) for the northern gulf, ten are from July and nine each from August and September. Greater Shearwaters breed in the southern Atlantic, mostly on Nightingale, Inaccessible, and Gough Islands, and "winter" in the north Atlantic. Their clockwise path carries them past Florida in the spring, so that one might expect them to be most common in the Gulf of Mexico in early summer, even though the records do not bear that out. Although there are five records from southeastern Louisiana waters, there is some question whether the first four can be said to absolutely rule out Cory's, whose presence was not seriously suspected until recently. Newman (pers. comm.) was, however, very familiar with both species and has commented on the distinct caps of the birds he saw. The is one record of an unidentified large (Cory's/Greater type) shearwater 20 miles southeast of Southwest Pass of the Mississippi River, June 9, 1985 (MM). The records are Jul. 16, 1964 10 miles west of North Is. (LEW,MM,RWS); Sept. 4-5, 1970 35 miles off Southwest Pass (RJN); Aug. 11, 1971 35 miles off South Pass (RJN); May 3, 1972 20 miles off South Pass (RJN); Aug. 25, 1986 62 miles south of Racoon Pt. (MM).
Although there is no accepted record of Sooty Shearwater for Louisiana, Duncan and Havard (1980) give a report of one 100 km offshore, "along a grassline." Sooty Shearwaters have been recorded in the northern gulf on five occasions since 1976, and there are five earlier records (Duncan and Havard; Clapp, et al). There was a record from the Mississippi coast in 1985 associated with Hurricane Juan. In short, Sooty Shearwater is a bird to be looked for on pelagic trips or under tropical storm conditions.
AUDUBON'S SHEARWATER (Puffinus lherminiere) Rare in summer offshore
This species is the "common" shearwater off the Louisiana coast; in the course of Bob Newman's trips offshore in 1970-72, up to 15 were seen on a single occasion. Audubon's Shearwater has been recorded in the gulf in every month except December. Of 39 records totalling 290+ individuals given in Clapp, et al (1982), 8 were from July and 11 from September. When two individuals were collected from a flock of 200 on Aug. 26, 1954, south of Mobile Bay (fide GHL), the nearest land was Southeast Pass of the Mississippi River, 64 miles to the west. Palmer (1962) was quite mistaken when he wrote, of this species, "not seen alive in the Gulf of Mexico since Audubon's time." It is, however, interesting to note that Mac Myers, in 86 days on the gulf between March 29 and Aug. 31, 1985, saw no Audubon's Shearwaters; nor had this writer, in six trips to the edge of the continental shelf prior to spring 1990, seen the species. A trip out of Grand Isle on Oct. ...., 1988 produced two small shearwaters, presumably of this species (......); one seen on ...., 1990 (SWC,DD,DM,RDP), off South Pass was also probably an Audubon's Shearwater. Dwight Peake is of the opinion that Audubon's Shearwater can be expected only over very deep water, perhaps 1000 m or more. Easily the most remarkable record of Audubon's Shearwater is of one found dead at the corner of Calhoun and Magazine Streets in New Orleans, on July 25, 1981 (specimen to LSUMZ)! The remaining records are: Aug. 27, 1954 33 miles off Southeast Pass (SS,HRB); July 3,4,9,15, 1970 30-40 miles off South Pass (RJN); one collected; July 9.; Sept. 3-4, 1970 18-30 miles off South Pass (RJN--12,15); May 3-4, 1972 8-20 miles off South Pass (RJN); July 10, 1977 20-25 miles south of Empire Jetty (MM); July 22, 1978 south of Grand Isle (Clapp, et al, 1982)
WILSON'S STORM-PETREL (Oceanites oceanicus) Uncommon to rare in summer offshore
There are now easily 20 records of Wilson's Storm-Petrel from the waters off southeast Louisiana, and it is apparent that the species is quite regular in summer over the waters at the edge of the continental shelf, and perhaps further at sea. It is the only expected storm-petrel off the Louisiana coast, and is usually found near the grasslines which mark the "rips" which are the interfaces (or fronts) between differing water masses, usually between green and blue water. These grasslines are often only 10 miles off South Pass of the Mississippi River, though sometimes are much further out, may be 70 or more miles off Grand Isle or the Empire Canal. Although a number of records of Wilson's Storm-Petrel have been of birds feeding along grasslines, others have been of birds, in water ranging from green to blue, some distance from a rip. The maximum numbers recorded are 20 on Sept. 2-3, 1970, 20 miles off South Pass by Bob Newman, who saw as many as 15 at one time. A pelagic trip which reached 60 miles SSE of South Pass on May 27, 1995 netted up to 12 Wilson's Storm-petrels. H.C. Oberholser recorded 13 off the mouth of the river on June 8, 1933. The Reserve record is strictly anomalous, having occurred at the time of Hurricane Betsy. A record of a storm-petrel from Lake Pontchartrain (RDP) was not assignable to species. The normal period of occurrence of this species seems to be May through at least early September. [Oct, 1988?] It has become apparent recently that in addition to this species, Band-rumped Storm-Petrel (Harcourt's, Madieran--see below) is regular off the northern gulf coast, based on a number of Texas records and, quite recently, a handful of Louisiana sightings. This, coupled with the two or three Leach's records below, and the fact that Wilson's and Band-rumped not only the most likely in Louisiana waters but also the most similar, dictate great caution in identifying petrels on the gulf. It goes without saying that storm- petrels at sea can be very hard to distinguish--especially under the trying conditions of pelagic birding and by observers not fully familiar with the two species. Of 315 northern gulf records in Clapp, et al (1982), 192 were from the month of July, although 19 of 42 Louisiana records were from June. Clapp, et al give 11 records of at least 40 individuals from southeast Louisiana. Recent records include June 10-11,..., 20 miles southeast of Southwest Pass (MM), May 28, 1989, 10 miles of South Pass (MM,DM,RDP), ....1990, and May 27, 1995 40-50 mi SSE of South Pass (RB,CL,DP,DM,MM,RDP, et al--6-10). The expected dates of summering are approximately April 15 to September 1, with extreme dates of Apr. 3, 1973, 15 miles off Grand Isle and Sep. 9, 1965 at Reserve (RJS).
BAND-RUMPED STORM-PETREL (Oceanodroma castro) Regular offshore over very deep water
Until very recently there was only a single sight record of a Band-rumped Storm Petrel off Louisiana (SWC,DLD), rejected by the LOS Bird Records Committee as a first state record, but generally assumed to be a valid record. Recently Dwight Peake encountered this species while accompanying transect studies of marine mammals off the Louisiana coast. Thus stood the situation until May 27, 1995, when a pelagic trip off South Pass, guided by Peake, found up to 24, with 10-12+ actually identified, 45-60 miles SSE of South Pass, in water up to 1000 fathoms deep. Apparently Band-rumped Storm Petrel (also known as Madieran and Harcourt's) is a bird of very deep water, perhaps at least 500 fathoms. Distinguishing this and the previous species is challenging, but, under good conditions (which often do not prevail at sea), by no means impossible. Band- rumped Storm Petrels have a large, squarish, "pillow-like" white rump patch, with a lot of black tail aft of it. Their toes do not extend beyond the tail as in Wilson's, and they seem to have a less prominent bar on the wing caused by the secondary coverts. Their wing shape is intermediate between the long, angled wings of Leach's, and the broad, round-tipped, wings of Wilson's, which lack any angle at the wrist. The flight is a distinctive accipiter (or shearwater)-like flight which is quite different from the swallow- like flight of the Wilson's, which also indulges in a characteristic pattering over the waves, and the erratic, nighthawk-like flight of Leach's.
LEACH'S STORM-PETREL (Oceanodroma leucorhos) Casual to accidental offshore
The only definite records are of one collected 41 miles southeast of South Pass on Dec. 5, 1956 (HRB), and another picked up alive on the beach at Grand Isle on Sept. 23, 1972 by Phillip L. Bruner and James Rogers. For identification, see Harrison (1983). On the other hand, a bird seen about 40-45 miles SSE of South Pass on May 27, 1995 (RB,CL,DP, et al) is likely to have been of this species.
ORDER Pelicaniformes
A White-tailed Tropicbird was seen in a Fish and Wildlife Service aerial transect study 120 miles west of Grand Isle (29 9.7' N, 92 1.2' W) on Aug. 5, 1980 by Wayne Hoffman (pers. comm.). While Stanley C. Arthur's claim that they are regular offshore in summer was clearly confused, it may have been based on an actual record, and they in fact do breed rather nearby in Bermuda and the Caribbean. Furthermore, there was a record at Dauphin I., Ala. during the spring of 1989. Dwight Peake has seen this species and a Red-billed Tropicbird in waters off the Louisiana coast.
MASKED BOOBY (Sula dactylatra) Rare offshore in summer
This species, and the Brown Booby, are the "expected" sulids off the Louisiana coast in summer, and may indeed be regular off the mouth of the Mississippi River, especially near the grasslines or "rips" which mark the interface between blue (very clear, highly saline) and green water. This sulid seems to be seen more frequently within sight of land than the next species. There are at least 15 records for Southeast Louisiana over the last 70 years: July 28, 1926, Grand Gosier I. (ESH--dead); June 4, 1958, 45 miles south of Grand Isle (BMM,MM); July 10, 1970, 38 miles off South Pass (RJN--dead); July 29, 1970, off South Pass (HBH--2); Sept. 3, 1970, off South Pass (Frank Durham, fide RDP); Aug. 26, 1971, 27 miles off South Pass (RJN--2 imm.); Oct. 15-16, 1971, 27 miles off South Pass (....); Aug. 18, 1980, 20 miles off South Pass; Aug. 20, 1983, 25 miles SE of South Pass (John Barber, fide RDP); July 7, Aug. 6, and Aug. 31, 1985, 62 miles S of Racoon Point (MM). On Oct. 22, 1987 a Masked Booby was brought to the Audubon Zoo Bird Rehabilitation Center, where it died. The most recent records are of one well offshore.....on March 11, 1992 (Gary Lester--1a,1i,RM?), an adult on L. Pontchartrain on Aug. 15, 1988 (RDP), after a tropical storm, and two on May 27, 1995, 40 miles SSE of South Pass (m.ob.--ph.; la,1i).
BROWN BOOBY (Sula leucogaster) Rare offshore in summer
The number of records of Brown Boobies (12), coupled with the poor coverage given the waters of the continental shelf (and further out) off southeastern Louisiana, suggests that the Brown or "White-bellied" Booby is rather regular in summer, especially near the Sargassum grasslines which line the transition zones between green and blue- green or blue-green and blue water. There is one winter record, Jan. 15, 1901 at Red Pass (fide HCO). The "summer " records are: Apr. 1, 1926, Grand Isle (ESH); Apr. 1929, Grand Isle (ESH); Apr. 1929, Grand Isle (ESH*); Sep. 8, 1951, 30 miles east of Pass a Loutre (HRB); Oct. 15-16, 1968, 30 miles off South Pass (...); July 18, 1973, Elmer's I. (RJN); May 29-June 7, 1985, 20 miles SE of Southwest Pass (MM). There is also a probable record from July 16, 1964, 10 miles off South Pass (Frank Durham, fide RDP--6-10). On Aug. 7, 1980, a Brown Booby was seen in an aerial transect study 130 miles WSW of Grand Isle (28 36' N, 92 14' W--Wayne Hoffmann). The most recent record is Mar. 11, 1992 at 28o59'22"N, 90o55'10"W (RM).
RED-FOOTED BOOBY (Sula sula) Uncommon to common in winter offshore.
Until recently there was a single record of this species for Louisiana, of one collected at the mouth of Bayou Scofield on Nov. 1, 1940 (fide GHL; AOU Checklist). There are at least six additional sightings for the northern gulf, four from Texas, and one each from Alabama and Florida. Recently a bird thought to be of this species was seen on Baptiste Collette Bayou on May...., 1995 (BR--ph). In light of these records, the Red-footed Booby should be taken into account when identifying any sulid in Louisiana.
NORTHERN GANNET (Morus bassanus) Uncommon to common in winter offshore
During the past decade it has become clear that Gannets regularly winter off southeast Louisiana, especially in February and March. Whether this reflects a real change in distribution or abundance, or simply the increased patience in looking offshore that results from success, is anyone's guess. In any event, the Gannet has become sufficiently common in March during the past two or three years that the careful observer might see dozens several hundred yards off the beach from Grand Isle and especially Fourchon Beach. The highest count of all is of 270 off Fourchon Beach on Feb. 26, 1989 (DM,LO'M,RDP); 235 were seen there on Feb. 4, 1990 (RDP,NN,MM). The total number of records now exceeds 30, and grows with every winter. Other high counts include 54 between Chandeleur Is., La. and Ship I., Miss. on Mar. 15, 1960 (JMV,JRW), and 50 off Fourchon Beach on Feb. 28, 1982 (DH,KH). By month the records are distributed as follows: Nov. (1), Dec. (5), Jan. (4), Feb. (5), Mar. (10), Apr. (4), May (1), June (1). At least 18 of the records have been since 1978, including the 1985-87 Grand Isle CBC's. A bird found dead on Apr. 26, 1970 ....had been banded on Sep. 7, 1968 at Balochrois, Canada. Expected dates, somewhat uncertain, are December 1 into April; extreme dates are November 22... to May 5...
AMERICAN WHITE PELICAN (Pelecanus erythrorynchus) Common in Winter, non-breeders present in summer.
The White Pelican is a common winter resident, mostly along the coast. It regularly lingers well into, or even through, the summer in near-coastal regions (near the mouth of the river, Fourchon Road) and their are records for every month. Although there has never been any suggestion of nesting in Louisiana, the fact that they do (have) bred on the Texas coast is worth keeping in the back of one's mind. The largest "summer" concentrations have been 1000 on La. 3090 ("Fourchon Road") on June 20, 1982 (RDP,DM,MM) at least 1500 at the same spot on June 17, 1989 (RDP,DM), and 1000 there on July 16, 1989 (GC,MM,NN,RDP). Expected dates of occurrence: September 15 to April 15
BROWN PELICAN (Pelecanus occidentalis) Local resident, increasing in numbers
The Brown Pelican is the state bird of Louisiana. Sadly, especially in view of this fact, the Brown Pelican was extirpated in Louisiana during the 1960's, and present populations derive from birds introduced from Florida. While not everyone agrees that this is good biology, most observers enjoy the presence of the Brown Pelican, in good numbers in the vicinity of Grand Isle, which is near the Queen Bess Island nesting site. Other colonies now exist, including a new one on Curlew Island, first noted in the summer of 1991. The Brown Pelican declined precipitously during the late 1950's, and while that decline did not go unnoticed, it was mistakenly blamed on a variety of factors such as the occurrence of Hurricane Audrey, which devastated southwestern Louisiana in 1957. The last known nesting was on the Chandeleurs in 1961, and the last records of native birds were in the summer of 1967: June 28 on the Chandeleurs (SAG, RDP, et al) and June 30 on Lake Pontchartrain (Kenneth Hughes, fide JLD). Records from Grand Gosier Island on June 8, 1973 and just to the north, in the Chandeleur Chain June 21-23, 1973 may or may not have been of Florida birds. On the heels of successful nesting around the periphery of the delta during the last decade or so, there have been irregular sightings of single Brown Pelicans on the New Orleans lakefront, since the late winter of 1988. Historically, as many as 75-80,000 individuals bred along the Louisiana coast. Important concentrations were on islands in Timbalier Bay and on the mud lumps at the mouth of Pass-a-Loutre, etc. An important colony was on North Island, near the north end of the Chandeleurs. The contemporaneous decline of Brown Pelicans on the California coast, and the documentation of the cause as being persistent chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides, made it immediately clear that a similar fate had befallen the Louisiana Brown Pelicans; this was pointed out by Norman and Purrington in ..... Brown Pelicans are now nesting on Queen Bess I. in Barataria Bay, in the Chandeleus, and perhaps elsewhere. Since the early 90s, Brown Pelicans have returned to Lake Pontchartrain in small numbers. The failure of a late winter nesting on Queen Bess Island in 1990-91 was possibly due to exposure to heavy January rains. At least 60 dead nestlings were found on Feb. 2 and only two live fledglings (CF,BA,NN,RDP).
FAMILY Phalacrocoracidae CORMORANTS
There have been six reports of Great Cormorants from the vicinity of Grand Isle, all of immature birds, all in flight. Full acceptance of the species awaits further substantiation, based at the very least on a perched bird, preferably photographed. There are a number of records for the gulf coast to the east of Louisiana, including Mississippi. Vagrants to this area would likely be immatures.
DOUBLE-CRESTED CORMORANT (Phalacrocorax auritus) Common in Winter.
The Double-crested Cormorant is a characteristic bird of coastal and near-coastal parts of the checklist area. It is common on Lake Pontchartrain, with concentrations of resting birds as high as 100-150 quite ordinary on the New Orleans Lakefront. Although Lowery (1074) reports no recent nesting in Louisiana, there are occasional summer records, e.g., August 24, 1970, June 23, 1983 in Metairie (SP), June 22, 1985 on Fourchon Road (AS,GS,JS), summer 1985 at the western edge of the lake (MW,RJS), during the summer of 1988, and two records in the summer of 1992: July 6 in Jefferson Parish (GO) and July 31 in St. Charles Parish (RJS). On New Orleans Christmas Counts, the Double-crested Cormorant has increased dramatically: while there were a total of 16 recorded on the 11 counts between 1960 and 1974, typical numbers in the mid-1980's were 200 or more per count. The largest concentration recorded appears to be approximately 600 at Grand Isle on March 3, 1985 (NN,MM,RDP). The Double-crested Cormorant arrives in late September or early October (Oct. 5) and departs by mid-April (April 15). Extreme dates are September 3, 1985 at Lafitte National Park (DM) and May 24, 1981, in New Orleans (JR).
OLIVACEOUS CORMORANT (Phacrocorax olivaceous) Casual Vagrant This cormorant, whose alternative (and preferable) name is Neotropical Cormorant, has been recorded in Southeastern Louisiana on only three occasions: March 27 and April 14, 1959 at New Orleans (SAG), and Aug. 9, 1986, on Fourchon Rd. (Lafourche) (DM,RDP). According to Portnoy (1976), Olivaceous Cormorants were reported during the breeding season at Delta NWR during the 1960's; it is not known whether the identifcations were correct. Any cormorant suspected to be of this species should be identified with great caution, even though it is abundant in Southwestern Louisiana. The best field-mark is the dirty yellow gular pouch which has an angular rather than rounded rear margin, but the long-tailed look in flight is quite distinctive. The gular pouch is edged with white in breeding condition. While a few Double-crested Cormorants can be found in summer near the coast, and perhaps on Lake Pontchartrain, it may be as likely that summering cormorants would be of this species....[Aud. bird rehab?]
ANHINGA (Anhinga anhinga) Uncommon in breeding season, uncommon to rare in winter. A denizen of the true swamp, the Anhinga is most often found north of U.S. 90 during the breeding season, and is mostly likely to be seen near the cypress swamps on the east or west sides of Lake Pontchartrain, i.e., the Bonnet Carre Spillway, Manchac- Pontchatoula, and the Pearl River bottoms. During migration in late March and April, and in September and October, it may be seen anywhere, soaring singly, or in small numbers. Winter records have become increasingly common, especially in the Reserve- Laplace-spillway area, but on north and south shore Christmas Counts as well. Given this fact, extreme dates of occurrence may be somewhat arbitrary. Expected dates of occurrence are April 1 to November 1. Extreme dates are March 11, 1991 near des Allemandes (NN,MM,RDP) and Nov. 23, 1984 at New Orleans (DM).
FAMILY Fregatidae FRIGATEBIRDS MAGNIFICENT FRIGATE-BIRD (Fregata magnificens) Uncommon to locally common summer visitor (non-breeding). Although this extraordinary bird is not known to breed in Louisiana, it is present from April to November along the coast, sometimes in large numbers. It is not a true pelagic bird, being always found near the coast, albeit not often on the coast proper and never inland except during tropical storms. Historically, the largest concentrations have been in the vicinity of North Island in the Chandeleurs, near the site of the old Brown Pelican colony. The demise of the Brown Pelican and the killing of the black mangroves on which they roosted raises questions about their continued presence in such numbers. Esimates of 3-10,000 near North Island were routine through the 1960's. Since Hurricane Camille in 1969, most visits by Louisiana observers have been from the south, i.e., from Hopedale or Venice, rather than from the north, as was the case when Gulf Islands (or Breton Island) NWR headquarters were in Ocean Springs, Miss. The result is that little current information is available on the size of the North Island "colony." On Aug. 1, 1969, this writer estimated a maximum of 1000 at North Island. It is, however, common to seen Frigate-birds numbers in the tens to dozens over Breton and Chandeleur Sounds, and at the nearby marsh edge, during the summer. Although the breeding of this species at Marquesas Keys, Fla. since 1970 at least raises the possibility of nesting in Louisiana , the report by Stanley C. Arthur (1918) that Colonel Theodore Roosevelt removed an egg belonging to this species from a nest on Grand Gosier Island in 1915 has no independent substantiation. Expected dates are mid-to-late April until about November 1. Extreme dates are Mar. 3, 1992 at Grand Isle (JW) and Nov. 21, 1982 at Venice (MM,RDP). There is one mid-winter record, from Grand Isle, on ...... ORDER Ciconiformes FAMILY Ardeidae HERONS AND BITTERNS An invaluable source of information on coastal nesting of all heron species is Portnoy (1977). AMERICAN BITTERN (Botaurus lentiginosus) Uncommon winter resident The American Bittern can be expected throughout the coastal marsh. Although Beyer claimed that this species bred at Madisonville in 1891, there has been no other hint of breeding in southeast Louisiana, nor any recent nesting records for Louisiana. It is generally agreed that American Bittern numbers are significantly lower than in the 1960's. The expected dates of wintering are [October 15] to April 15; the extreme dates of occurrence are Sept. 19, 1957 on Fourchon Rd. (PW,CS) and Apr. 25, 1976 at Venice (RH,MM,NN). LEAST BITTERN (Ixobrychus exillis) Uncommon to sometimes common summer resident Least Bitterns are most numerous in fresh to brackish or intermediate marshes and seem to prefer cattail, bullrush, or roseau cane. Territories are on the order of 2 acres in extent. Expected dates of summering are April 15 to September 15, and extreme dates of occurrence are Mar. 11, 1870 at the Rigolets (HWH) and Nov. 4, 1961 at Triumph (SAG). There are however at least four winter records: Dec. 20, 1958, New Orleans (SAG); Jan. 17, 1971, Venice (RJN,DN); Dec. 28, 1972, Venice (RDP, et al); Feb. 18, 1973, Venice (RDP,RJN); Dec. 29, 1991 at Venice (......--2). GREAT BLUE HERON (Ardea herodias) Common resident While the Great Blue Heron may be found wherever there is marsh or on the shore of lakes and even the gulf, it is primarily a fresh marsh and swamp nesting species, its colonies typically measuring 50-200 pairs. New Orleans Christmas Count data indicate an increase in numbers since the early 1970's. There are three records of the white morph, the "Great White Heron": one at New Orleans' Lakefront Airport Oct. 31-Nov. 15, 1981 (DM, m.ob.), photographed by the author, but at considerable distance; Mar. 21, 1982 at Delta NWR (JS); and Feb. 25-...., 1987 at Grand Isle (AS,GS, Kenn Kaufman), phtographed by Mac Myers and the author. A well-known and easily viewed nesting colony of the Great Blue Heron is at the Bald Eagle nest site near White Kitchen, St. Tammany Parish. GREAT EGRET (Casmerodius albus) Common to abundant resident in coastal marsh and other wetland types. The Great Egret nests in all weland habitat types, including the barrier islands. Its nests are usually on the highest point of the woody vegetation or in the tree canopy. The largest breeding concentration found by Portnoy (1977) was a colony of nearly 4000 adults. SNOWY EGRET (Egretta thusla) Common to abundant resident The Snowy Egret is one of the most characteristic birds of the coastal marsh. It nests abundantly in marsh and swamp habitat. In 1976 one colony on Delta NWR in Phragmites contained 12,000 adults. Numbers on New Orleans Christmas Bird Counts have increased since the early 1970's. At least 1000 were seen on Fourchon Rd., Lafourche Par., on June 17, 1984, and nearly twice that number there on June 17?, 1989. LITTLE BLUE HERON (Egretta caerulea) Common to sometimes abundant resident The Little Blue Heron nests most commonly in swamps and fresh-water marshes, often with Snowy Egrets. According to Lowery (1974), many leave Louisiana to winter in Central America. Since 1970, numbers on the New Orleans CBC have ranged from 7 in 1974, to 3247 in 1985, owing in part to their gregariousness. Usually one will see a few to several on a trip to the coast. TRI-COLORED HERON (Egretta tricolor) Common resident The preferred habitat of this species, which is better (more properly?) known locally by its former name, Louisiana Heron, is salt marsh, but it breeds in fresh and brackish areas as well. In 1976 two colonies in Barataria Bay totalled 33,000 adults (Portnoy, 1977). Typically the Louisiana Heron occupies the lowest of the available nesting sites. An increase in numbers since the early 1970's is indicated by the New Orleans CBC data. REDDISH EGRET (Egretta rufescens) Uncommon resident The Reddish Egret nests on the islands adjacent to the Mississippi delta, and especially in the Chandeleur chain (see Portnoy, 1977). It formerly nested in Black Mangrove thickets on Freemason Island, with Louisiana Herons, but several freezes since 1962 have caused Black Mangrove to retreat to about 29 latitude at it northernmost. In the summer of 1976, the largest colony found by Portnoy was on Lonesome I., where 210 breeding adults were counted. In recent years this island has been shrinking drastically because of the susidence of the delta, and the rich heron colony there may soon be a thing of the past. Although white-phase individuals are relatively rare in Louisiana, there are well over a dozen records for southeast Louisiana, and perhps one or two are recorded annually, usually near Grand Isle. Of 41 adults seen on the Chandeleurs June 21-23, 1973 (RJN,RBH,AWP,HDP), 5 were white-phase. Away from their small nesting colonies, Reddish Egrets are most frequently seen in the Fourchon-Grand Isle area, and most commonly in fall. Outside the nesting areas, the largest number recorded is 15 in Lafourche Par. on Aug. 22, 1977. There are at least seven New Orleans records of this primarily coastal species, all or almost all associated with tropcial storms. These include Sept. 4-Oct. 2, 1977 (RDP,MM), a product of tropical storms "Anita" and "Babe," fall 1981 in Metairie (FB--photographed), and Aug. 6-15, 1982 in New Orleans (DM,MM,RDP). While an Aug. 16, 1985 record was associated with Hurricane Danny, records on Sept. 5-7, 1986 on Highway 11 and Feb. 8, 1987 at Lafitte NP were unrelated to any storm activity. The latter record is the only non-coastal record after October. One in New Orleans on Aug. 26 (DM,PY) was a direct result of Hurricane Andrew. Although formerly regarded as rare in winter, there are well over two dozen winter records and, indeed, it has become almost routine to see one on a winter trip to Grand Isle. On Sept. 30, 1978, a color-banded individual was observed at Grand Isle (MB) that had been banded during the summer of 1977 at Rockport, Texas. CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis) Common to abundant resident Cattle Egrets first appeared in Louisiana in the fall and winter of 1955-56. They nest mainly in fresh water swamps and marshes, often in huge colonies, but will nest on marshy islands at the edge of the delta as well (e.g., Lonsome I.). GREEN HERON (Butorides striatus) šncommon to common summer resident; rare, but regular in winter near the coast. Small numbers of Green Herons (briefly Green-backed) are recorded in winter, mostly in the vicinity of Venice. Although they are primarily solitary nesters, colonies are not extraordinary, e.g., 25+ nests in the oaks at Ft. Jackson, May 17, 1983 (Joe Neal). Expected dates are March 25 to October 25; extrreme dates of occurrence are Mar. 2, 1956 at Venice (JPG) and Nov. 9, 1958 at New Orleans (SAG). Keep in mind, however, that winter records are rather common, with one to a few occurring on every Venice CBC, for example. BLACK-CROWNED NIGHT HERON (Nycticorax nycticorax) Uncommon to common resident, mostly near the coast. This species favors brackish or salt water and is less common in the immediate vicinity of New Orleans than in or near the coastal marsh. It nests commonly on the Chandeleurs, including Curlew and Breton Islands, has nested on marshy islands such as Lonesome I., and in large heronries with White Ibis and various herons on Delta NWR. It is also common in Barataria Bay, where colonies may contain up to 4000 adults. YELLOW-CROWNED NIGHT-HERON (Nycticorax violacea) Common summer resident, rare winter resident locally. Although less frequent in the coastal marsh and on offshore islands than the previous species, the Yellow-crowned Night Heron is more widely distributed and more likely to be seen near inhabited areas and in bottomland hardwoods or cypress-tupelo swamp. Frequently its calls are heard overhead at night during migration. Although there are upwards of twenty winter records, and although the Yellow-crowned Night Heron seems to be more regular in winter than previously, it should nonetheless be considered unexpected. Immatures, especially, should be identified with care. Note the eye color, if possible, and especially the rather grayish body plumage of this species, compared to the rather brown, buffy coloration of the young Black-crowned Night Heron. Expected dates are March 20 to October 10; extreme dates of occurrence are Mar. 10, 1968 at Venice (YB) and Nov. 26, 1978 at Reserve (MW). FAMILY Threskiornithidae IBISES AND SPOONBILLS WHITE IBIS (Eudocimus albus) Common to abundant resident The White Ibis is common in or near the marshes and swamps of southeastern Louisiana. While it may be found anywhere, from hardwood bottoms to the coast (and even the barrier islands), it is most frequently seen along the west side of Lake Pontchartrain, from near the Bonnet Carre Spillway to Manchac, to Pontchatoula. The largest known White Ibis colony in Louisiana, near the north shore of Lake Manchac, contained 60,000 breeding adults in 1976 (Portnoy, 1977). GLOSSY IBIS (Plegadis falcinellus) Uncommon resident near the coast Southeast Louisiana is the only place where the two species of plegadis breed, so that it is here that the identification is most immediate. Because of the similarity of the two species, it is difficult to be sure about relative abundance. Generally, it seems to be true that the Glossy Ibis is the more common of the two in Plaquemines Parish, in the vicinity of Venice, and that, as is true of the distribution on the large scale, the balance begins to shift to the north and west. Neither species is frequently seen near the coast in the vicinity of Grand Isle, although they breed together on islands in Barataria Bay. Plegadis ibis are often seen west of the city along the west side of Lake Pontchartrain and along U.S. 90. In the immediate vicinity of New Orleans, they are most likely seen along U.S. 11 in the eastern part of the city. While identification of immatures should not generally be attempted, adults are not especially difficult to identify if seen well. The White-faced Ibis shows a white fringe of feathers around the "face" , but only in breeding season. Nonetheless, the red eye and reddish facial skin are diagnostic of the White-faced Ibis, in contrast to the bluish-gray facial skin of the Glossy Ibis, and especially the bluish to almost gray-white lores. The eye is brown. Plegaids colonies vary in size from less than 100 to more than 5000 breeding pairs. WHITE-FACED IBIS (Plegadis chihi) Uncommon to common resident in marshy habitat On the whole, the White-faced Ibis is the most likely of the two species to be encountered in southeast Louisiana, but not by a large margin. To the east, the opposite is true, and toward southwest Louisiana, the Glossy Ibis almost disappears altogether. A 1974 die-off of this species in Texas was attributed to high levels of DDE, dieldrin, and aldrin (all chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides). ROSEATE SPOONBILL (Ajaia ajaia) Rare post-breeding wanderer in summer and fall Southeastern Louisiana is much to the east of the main populations of this species and it is usually only encountered in the late summer or early fall, after breeding, and most records are from Fourchon Road in Lafourche Par. near Grand Isle. There are now thirty or more records for this area, all but one since 1959. There are only two records for the immediate vicinity of New Orleans, both from US Highway 11: Aug. 10, 1968 (WW,LW,JK), and July 3-.August 13, 1989 (....). Since September 1981 (Sept. 6, Grand Isle (RDP,NN,JR,SN)) there have been at least 25 records for Southeastern Louisiana, of which most have been from Fourchon Rd., Lafourche Par. in every year since 1981, except 1982. Especially unusual were 6 at Venice on Sep. 26, 1987 (NN,RDP), another there on Oct. 3, 1993 (RDP), one at Slidell, .... 1989, July 5, 1992, Bayou Sauvage NWR (AS,GS--7) and one on the 1992 New Orleans CBC, Dec. 26, 1992 (GS,RSe), the only winter record away from the coast. There is one indication of nesting at the edge of the area, May 26, 1970, on Isle Dernieres (JMV), and nestlings were brought to New Orleans' Audubon Zoo from Terrebonne Bay in 1980 and 1982. A Roseate Spoonbill was captured on the gulf 40 miles south of Grand Isle on Apr. 7, 1951 (J.N. Gowanloch, La. Conserv. 3, 4, 24 (1951)). FAMILY Ciconiidae STORKS WOOD STORK ( Mycteria americana) Casual post-breeding wanderer The paucity of records of this species is a little surprising; it should occur regularly, and perhaps does in the lower Pearl River drainage in late summer and early fall. Certainly it is found in similar situations from at least East Texas to south-central Louiaiana, in July and August; furthermore, it is regular then in southwest Louisiana. Nevertheless, there are but eight records for southeastern Louisiana. G.E. Beyer, in the early part of the century, claimed to have found Wood Storks nesting in St. Tammany Parish, in two colonies of 40 birds each on the Bogue Chitto and Bedico rivers. While these may in fact have simply been post-breeding wanderers, one should read the description by Beyer, et al (1908) before making up his mind. The records are: Jan. 21, 1932, Point-a-la-Hache (HCO--15); Dec. 19, 1932, Main Pass (HCO); July 24, 1978, Labranche (FB); Nov. 21-Dec. 13, 1978, New Orleans (Jim Whelan,NN,et al); Aug. 18, 1980, near Honey Island Swamp (JR); and Oct. 5, 1985, Goose Point (AS,GS--9). Finally, four were seen over the New Orleans lakefront on Nov......., 1989 (AS,GS), and one was seen on Fourchon Rd...... More recently, ten were seen over New Orleans on July 19, 1992 (GS,AS) and there were at least three records in late summer 1993 over New Orleans and Metairie. ORDER Phoenicopteriformes FAMILY Phoenicopteridae FLAMINGOS [GREATER FLAMINGO (Phoenicopterus ruber) ] HYPOTHETICAL The single record is of one found dead in St. Bernard Par. on Jan. 9, 1962 (DWG,LO). Although the possibility that the bird was an escape certainly cannot be ruled out, the observers judged that it showed no signs of having been in captivity (Aud. Field Notes 16, 337 (1962)). There is one other putative record for Louisiana, from Cameron Parish in 1910. The LOS Bird Records Committee (LBRC) has recently rejected both records on the grounds that the origin of the birds is uncertain. ORDER Anseriformes FAMILY Anatidae SWANS, GEESE, DUCKS FULVOUS WHISTLING-DUCK (Dendrocygna bicolor) Casual winter visitor Although the Fulvous Whistling Duck (formerly "Tree-Duck") is a common summer resident of the rice fields of south-central and southwest Louisiana, it is rarely encountered this far east. Except for an undated December record of a bird shot near Labranche in the early 1970's (fide RJS), this species went unrecorded from 1934 until February 1978. The records are Jan. 22, 1870, New Orleans (fide HCO); Oct. 1892, Lake Catherine (fide GEBin HCO); Jan. 1900, Rigolets (fide GEB in HCO); Nov. 2, 1934, in the delta (AD--captured); Feb. 12-14?, 1978 New Orleans (JW,m.ob.--45) and Mar. 12, 1978, White Kitchen (MM,NN,JR,RDP--45), almost certainly the same flock; Venice. (NN,RDP, GC); Sep. 9, 1990 Bayou Sauvage? (JHa); Dec. 23, 1990 Orleans Parish (DM--).....; Dec. 26, 1992, New Orleans (RH,JHa--13). BLACK-BELLIED WHISTLING DUCK (Dendrocygna autumnalis) Accidental The only definite record of this species is of one killed by a hunter in St. Charles Parish on Nov. 28, 1983 (fide RJS). It is, however, becoming increasingly common in southwestern Louisiana, where free-flying flocks from Rockefeler Refuge have been known for some time. Recent records have come from areas far from the refuge, e.g., Sulphur, La. and make it apparent that Black-bellied Whistling-Ducks are breeding in that area or are being moving in from Texas. TUNDRA SWAN (Cygnus columbianus) Casual winter visitor There are eight records of Tundra Swan (previously Whistling Swan) from Southeastern Louisiana. Although not all of the sight records can definitely be assigned to this species (rather than the next), it is more than reasonable to assume that they all are of C. columbianus. The known records are Jan. 15, 1933, Main Pass (WEN--3, 1*); Dec. 18, 1960, Bosco (fide JLH); Jan. 30-31, .... , Rigolets (SAG); Dec. 31, 1977, New Orleans (JK, et al) and Jan. 14, 1978 (MH), presumably the same individual; Dec. 14, 1980, Gheens, an individual caught in a Nutrea trap and brought to Audubon Zoo, where it died; Nov. 22, 1984, Labranche (fide RJS) 12 birds of which one was shot, and the head delivered to Stein; Dec. 2, 1984 to at least Jan. 1, 1985, Madisonville (RDP,DM,MM,NN- -3). Photographs of the latter bird (American Birds....) show it to have been a Tundra Swan. Subsequently, two Tundra Swans, assumed to be part of the earlier group, were present near Folsom into February (fide CS). TRUMPETER SWAN (Cygnus buccinator) FORMERLY The evidence for the occurrence of this species in Southeastern Louisiana comes from the young swan which Audubon painted in New Orleans and which he claimed was short near Barataria on Dec. 16, 1822 (Ornithological Biography, Vol IV, p. 541). The LOS Bird Records Committee has recently reaffirmed the status of the Trumpeter Swan on the Louisiana list, largely because of this record. In Birds of America , Vol. VI, Audubon wrote "At New Orleans, where I made the drawing of the young bird here given, the Trumpeters are frequently exposed for sale in the markets, being procured on the ponds of the interior, and in the great lakes leading to the waters of the Gulf of Mexico." Arthur gives another record for Louisiana, which probably deserves little credence. GREATER WHITE-FRONTED GOOSE (Anser albifrons) Uncommon to rare in winter Although quite common in southwest Louisiana, the White-fronted Goose is not often encountered in this area. No doubt it is more common than actual records indicate, since few winter trips are made to likely feeding areas--Delta NWR, for example. This species is probably less common than formerly, but has reported increased since the 1950's in southwest Louisiana. White-fronted Geese arrive as early as about Oct. 20 and depart in late March to early April; the earliest fall record is Oct. 13, 1959. SNOW GOOSE (Chen caerulescens) Common to uncommon in winter in the delta. Although significant numbers of geese--mostly Snow Geese--winter in southeast Louisiana, they are usually not accessible to the birder without the means to venture well into the marsh to favorite feeding locations. Hundreds, at least, will be seen on a boat trip to Delta NWR. Otherwise, records are simply opportunistic, of small flocks seen amost anywhere below U.S. 90, and especially in fall migration, which takes place from mid-October through November. One can hope to encounter Snow Geese in the Bonnet Carre Spillway or near Grand Isle. In southeast Louisiana the blue morph ("Blue Goose") is considerably more common than the white. Observers should look for Ross's Geese, which are now being found regularly in southwest Louisiana. There is, in fact, one record of what was probably the rare blue morph of Ross' Goose and a definite record of the species from south of Houma. Expected dates of arrival and departure are October 15 and April 15; the earliest fall date is taken to be Oct. 12, 1986 at Grand Isle (JS), but there is an Aug. 8, 1974 record from Reserve (28???), and a report of a flock at Pass-a-Loutre on Sept. ..., 1994 (fide DM). BRANT (Branta hernicla) Accidental There is a single record, of a bird present in New Orleans' City Park Nov. 27-30, 1960 (WJG,SAG,MEL,m.ob.), which was almost certainly the one seen on the New Orleans lakefront in January 1961 (B.Ward). Motion pictures were taken of the City Park bird. CANADA GOOSE (Branta canadensis) Occasional to uncommon locally in winter, perhaps regular in delta While formerly numerous in the delta in winter, Canada Geese now reach Southeastern Louisiana in only small numbers, e.g., approximately 15 at Delta NWR during the winter of 1982-3 (fide Sam Henson). Perhaps typical of earlier numbers is the figure of 1578 recorded on the Delta NWR Christmas Count on Dec. 23, 1940. Audubon wrote that they were "one of the commonest of the geese in the New Orleans markets during the winter." They have reportedly been seen near Madisonville in recent winters (fide Taylor Guste). Other recent records are: Oct. 12, 1958, Reserve (RFC); Dec. 24, 1960, Venice (fide SAG); Sep. 18, 1965, New Orleans (JK); Dec. 26, 1983, New Orleans (MM,RDP,et al); New Orleans (NN,RDP,...)? Aproximate expected dates are October 1 to April 15. WOOD DUCK (Aix spons) Common denizen of swamps and flooded woodlands The Wood Duck is a rather common inhabitant of bottomland sloughs and swampy woodlands. Winter populations in Louisiana are greatly increased by the arrive of over half of the Wood Ducks which breed in the interior of the United States (Bellrose, 1976). The maximum concentration known to this writer is 200+ near Madisonville in December 1984. GREEN-WINGED TEAL (Anas crecca) Common winter vistor About 600,000 Green-winged Teal (one-fifth of the total population) winter in Louisiana. According to Bellrose (1976), they tend to occur in larger flocks than other species. In Southeast Louisiana the Green-winged Teal is most often encountered in rather small numbers, but sometimes in large concentrated flocks. It is the smallest of North American ducks. Expected dates of occurrence are October 15 to April 5. Extreme dates are Sep. 13, 1975, Reserve (MW,RJS--6) and Apr. 23, 1978, Venice (RDP,NN,MM). Perhaps the largest concentration of Green-winged Teal on record is of 2500 on U.S. 11 on Dec. 10, 1989 (NN,RDP). [BAIKAL TEAL (Anas formosa) HYPOTHETICAL] The sole record of this Eurasian species, of a bird shot by a hunter on Nov. 17, 1974 near the mouth of the Pearl River, must be looked upon with some skepticism. Although there is no direct evidence that the bird was an escape, it is thought that the species has been kept in captivity in the area. This record has been rejected by the LOS Bird Records Committee on the grounds of uncertain origin of the bird. AMERICAN BLACK DUCK (Anas rubripes) Rare to occasional winter visitor The difficulty of distinguishing the Black Duck from the Mottled Duck makes the status of the former uncertain at best, and, along with the apparent rarity of Black Duck in Southeast Louisiana, has led to a paucity of records. Although kills by hunters seem to suggest that the Black Duck is uncommon, but not rare, in winter, there have been few credible sightings by area birders in recent years. Perhaps the only "reliable" field-mark, in addition to the subjective information given in the field guides, is the rather heavy streaking on the throat, head, and neck. The available records span the period November 5 (1926, at the Rigolets) to March 12 (1966, at Cubit's Gap). It is not unlikely that the Mallard, Black Duck, and Mottled Duck will be lumped in some future edition of the AOU Checklist (the Black Duck hybridizes freely with the Mallard). MOTTLED DUCK (Anas fulvigula) Common resident The Mottled Duck is a conspicuous inhabitant of the coastal marsh at all seasons, and is usually seen in pairs or in very small groups. It is the only duck likely to be encountered, away from Wood Duck habitat, in mid-summer. The Mottled Duck nests most in Spartina patens meadows and marshes. Studies indicate that it is very sedentary. There has been a significan increase in numbers recorded on New Orleans CBC's since the mid-1960's. MALLARD (Anas platyrhynchos) Uncommon winter visitor Although on the order of 400,000 Mallards winter in Louisiana (Bellrose, 1976), the center of concentration is in the west-central part of the state, and it is a rather uncommon bird in Southeast Louisiana, one that is often seen singly. Sometimes one can be found in the ponds along U.S. 11 in eastern New Orleans or along Fourchon Rd. in Lafourche Parish. Maximum number is 556, on the New Orleans CBC Dec. 26, 1992. NORTHERN PINTAIL (Anas acuta) Uncommon to occasionally common winter visitor Although formerly one of the most common and characteristic puddle ducks of the coastal marsh of Southeast Louisiana, it has declined substantially in the past 20 years. Its numbers also fluctuate considerably--it was quite common in the fall of 1988, after very lowe numbers for several years--and it is usually more common during the fall than midwinter. Recent reports from the breeding grounds have been very discouraging, however. A pair was seen at Labranche, St. Charles Parish, on June 23, 1973 (fide RJS). The expected dates of occurrence are September 1 to April 25; the extremes are Sep. 6, 1981 and April 16, 1917 at Chef Menteur Pass (AMB). A sighting on US 11 in the easter party of the city on July 28, 1991 (NN) is difficult to classify. Was the bird summering, an early migrant, or a cripple? BLUE-WINGED TEAL (Anas discors) Abundant migrant and common winter visitor. Occasional in summer. The Blue-winged Teal is often present in enormous numbers in spring and fall as birds pass through to the north or sourth. According to Bellrose (1976) there was a great increase in wintering of Blue-winged Teal in coastal Louisiana from the 1950's on. This was attributed to the effect of hurricanes in opening up the coastal marsh. On the other hand, Gosselink, et al (1979) remark that numbers have since reverted to something like pre-Hurricane Audrey (1957) numbers. Although summer records are not extraordinary, and breeding should be looked for, the Blue-winged Teal is the earliest of the migrant ducks to reach coastal Louisiana in fall. Expected dates of occurrence are September 1 to April 15; extreme records are August 6, 1959, New Orleans (SAG) and May 20, 1979, Grand Gosier Island. CINNAMON TEAL (Anas cyanoptera) Occasional to accidental in winter. Even in southwestern Louisiana this beautiful duck is quite rare; in Southeast Louisiana it is rarer still. There are only two records in the last three decades, and only three since the early years of this century. Stein reports that the Cinnamon Teal is in fact occasionally taken by hunters in the Laplace-Reserve-Labranche area, where it is known as "gingerbread duck." The known, dated records are: Dec. 1884, Point-a-la-Hache (fide HCO--2*); Dec. 1884, Lake Pontchartrain (fide HCO*); Dec. 1893, Lake Catouache (A. Perilliat--2*); Ec. 1896, Lake Catouache (fide HCO--2*); Jan. 5, 1900, Lake Borgne (Rafael Robin*); Jan. 15, 1911 in the delta (JD*); Dec. 20, 1956, Plaquemines Parish*; Dec. 28, 1986, New Orleans (SAG,BC,CL); Mar. 5, 1987, Fourchon Rd (Lafourche) (CK,PW). An apparent hybrid Blue-winged X Cinnamon Teal was seen on Blind Lagoon in New Orleans East on ..... and .... 1995 (PW--ph.). NORTHERN SHOVELER (Anas clypeata) Common winter visitor While not as common as it was just 10 years ago, the Shoveler is one of the more familiar and common puddle ducks wintering in the coastal marsh. It primarily inhabits fresh and brackish estuarine marshes and bays, and is not one of the puddle ducks likely to be seen on the waters of the gulf. Expected dates of occurrence are from October 10 to April 20 and extreme records are Sep. 15, 1979 ... (JR,MB) and May 29, 1967, New Orleans (RDP). There are also at least two summer records: Jun. 17, 1978 at Reserve (MW) and Jun. 16, 1982 at New Orleans (DM). GADWALL (Anas strepera) Common winter resident The Gadwall is one of the most common dabbling ducks in winter in Se. Louisiana, being exceeding in numbers in midwinter mainly by the American Wigeon and N. Shoveler. Expected dates are October 20 to about April 15, with extremes of Oct. 5, 1980 at New Orleans (RDP, et al) and Apr. 19, 1969 at Grand Isle. EURASIAN WIGEON (Anas penelope) Accidental in winter. There are two records of this species, the only records of live birds ever seen in Louisiana (except over the sights of a shotgun). The first sighting, the first accepted Louisiana record, came from the eastern part of New Orleans ("Recovery I"), between Dec. 14, 1980 and Feb. 8, 1981 (RDP,NN, m.ob.--photos RDP). The other record is of a bird seen on Fourchon Rd, Lafourche Parish, between Jan. 10? and at least Feb. 4, 1990 (GC,m.ob.). Both records were of drakes. AMERICAN WIGEON (Anas americana) Common to abundant in winter. Although the wigeon or "baldpate" is one of the commoner wintering puddle ducks in Southeastern Louisiana, it may have been somewhat more common during the 1960's, as a result, according to Bellrose (1976) of hurricanes breaking up the coastal marsh. Expected dates of occurrence are October 1 to April 25; extreme dates are Sept. 3, 1977 at Grand Isle and May 8, 1978 at New Orleans (NN,JR,MM). CANVASBACK (Aythya valisineria) Uncommon to rare in winter. It is sad to write of the plight of the Canvasback, surely the best-loved of all the ducks. While only a few years ago one or several might be found in deep ponds in the eastern part of the city, urban sprawl and the decline in the Canvasback population have made this duck almost a thing of the past. It is not unusual for a winter to go by without a report of a Canvasback from Southeast Louisiana. Expected dates are November 15 to March 20; while the earliest date of fall arrival is Oct. 29, 1978 (NN,RDP), and latest in spring is May 27, 1995 at Tiger Pass. There is one "summer" record, July 12, 1973 at Venice (RJN,RSK). REDHEAD (Aythya americana) Quite uncommon in winter. The fate of the Redhead is only slightly less depressing than that of its congener, the Canvasback. It will, however, be encountered occasionally in winter, usually on Fourchon Rd. in Lafourche Parish, but might be found almost anywhere. Like the Canvasback, although a diving duck, it will often be seen feeding in shallow water in the manner of a puddle duck. Flocks are reported to occur in the Chandeleurs in winter (Smith, 1961); Bellrose gives 20,000 as a typical wintering population for Chandeleur Sound. Expected dates are November 10 to April 15; estreme dates are Oct. 25, 1969 at Grand Isle (RDP,RJN,DN) and May 4, 1969 at Ft. Jackson (WW). RING-NECKED DUCK (Aythya collaris) Common to uncommon winter visitor. Often found on inland fresh-water lakes and ponds, this species also inhabits brackish estuarine waters. In the city, the best place to find it is in City Park, especially the lagoons off Harrison Ave. It will sometimes be seen on Lake Pontchartrain or along Fourchon Road in Lafourche Parish. Expected dates are November 5 to April 1 and the earliest date of fall arrival is Sept. 24, 1956 (RF,BMM). There is one summer record, June 28, 1973 on Lake Pontchartrain (MW). GREATER SCAUP (Aythya marila) Uncommon (to rare?) in winter. Because of the difficulty of distinguishing the Greater Scaup from its more common cousin, less is known of the wintering population in this area than one would like. Similarly, it is difficult to assess the differences in relative numbers offshore vs. inshore. Gosselilnk (1979) quotes a figure of about 2% Greater Scaup in southern Lousiana, while Bellrose (1976) calculates a 6.6% figure for Louisiana. Taylor Guste says that Greater Scaup are not infrequently shot on his lands on the lakefront near Madisonville. The identification problem is difficult, but by no means hopleless. Adult male Greater Scaup are large, white-sided, heavy-billed, and have rounded-looking heads which are irridescent green when seen in good light. The wing strip is extends all across the primaries to the tip of the wing. Usually a combination of characters will be needed to cinch an indentification. Not all white-sided scaup are Greaters, for example. The available records span the period November 2 to March 23. LESSER SCAUP (Aythya affinis) Very common to abundant in winter. The Lesser Scaup is usually very common, sometimes abundant, on Lake Pontchartrain; it is far and away the dominant species of duck on the lake. Indeed, it is often the only species to be found from the south shore of Lake Pontchartrain. Often it occurs in large numbers on the near -shore waters of the gulf as well. Approximately 50% of all Lesser Scaup winter in Louisiana (Bellrose, 1976); reported something like 500,000 winter on Lakes Maurepas and Pontchartrain. Although Stanley C. Arthur claimed that an adult with young were found in Lake Borgne in 1915, his reports are not always reliable. Expected dates of wintering are October 25 to May 15; extreme dates are Sep. 16, 1983 on Lake Pontchartrain (RDP) and May 28, 1967 at New Orleans (RDP). Summer records in the New Orleans area--especially City Park--are rare, but not unprecedented. They include the following: summer 1958 (SAG),;June 29, 1959 (SAG); June 16, 1982 (DM). KING EIDER (Somateria spectibilis) Accidental The first record of this species, or of any eider, for Louisiana, was of a young male, apparently flightless (molting), present at the west end of Grand Terre Island. The bird first noted (but not identified) by John.... on April 9, 1994, was identified as an eider by Bob Russell a few days later, and as this species by many observers (DM,CS, et al; ph.) on April 14-17. It was present until at least May (21-22 or 14-15?) (JVR,DLD,SWC). Quite amazingly, the second record was hardly over a month later: a female seen and photographed by O'Meallie on Curlew Island on June 11, 1994. HARLEQUIN DUCK (Histrionicus histrioniucs) Accidental. There is one record of this beautiful duck, of a pair reported by Audubon on April 1, 1837 at Southwest Pass. Although this record has some sceptics, there is a recent sight record from the Florida panhandle. OLDSQUAW (Clangula hyemalis) Uncommon to rare in winter. There are about two dozen records of this somewhat erratic species from November 24 to February 28. In recent years it has been most frequently recorded from either shore of Lake Pontchartrain, often as a result of Christmas Count coverage, but it might be seen on any of the larger bodies of water: the gulf, Chandeleur Sound, Lake Borgne, etc. It is reportedly regular offshore in Mississippi Sound. In some years none are seen at all and in others there may be several records. Few adult males are seen. Extreme dates of occurrence are Nov. 15, 1986 at Fontainbleau St. Pk (MM,DM--3) and May 11, 1988 ...(NN,DM). BLACK SCOTER (Melanitta nirgra) Rare winter visitor. Although none of the scoters are common, of the three , the Black and Surf Scoters are seen much more frequently than the White-winged. Most of the records are from about November 20 through the Christmas Count period. The fact that there are few late winter records may mostly reflect lack of coverage, since they are seen regularly in spring on the gulf off Cameron Parish. In addition to the records quoted here, there is one undated record of Black Scoter from Lake Catherine by Gustav Kohn. In principle, good places to look for scoters would be off Grand Isle or from Fourchon Beach, and, in fact, the latest record of any scoter for Southeast Louisiana was of one seen on April 9, 1977 off Grand Isle, not identified as to species (but not white-winged). There are ten records spanning the period Oct. 25-Apr. 8: Nov. 11, 1941, St. Charles Par. (fide GHL); Nov. 29, 1952 on Lake Borgne (fide GHL); Oct. 25, 1969 on Lake Pontchartrain (RJN,RJS); Nov. 23, 1970 at the mouth of the Empire Canal (RJN,LO'M); Mar. 13, 1971, Lake Pontchartrain (HDP); Apr. 8, 1973, 25 miles off Grand Isle (RBH,RJN); Nov. 27-Dec. 16, 1977 on Lake Pontchartrain (JR,m.ob.--photos RDP); Nov. 13-Dec. 25, 1981 at New Orleans (JR,DM, et al); Nov. 23, 1981, Fontainbleau St. Pk. (NN,SF); Dec. 1-...., 1985 at New Orleans (RDP,m.ob.); New Orleans, Dec. 19, 1991 (NN--2). SURF SCOTER (Melanitta perspicillata) Rare winter visitor. Most of the scoters of this species, and of the others as well, have been in female/immature plumage, which suggests that they are birds of the year. Surf Scoters ordinarily winter on either coast and breed in northern Canada. There are at least 17 records of Surf Scoter from the period Nov. 22-Mar. 20: Mar. 20, 1890, New Orleans (fide HCO); Dec. 26, 1950, Grand Isle (JLC); Nov. 29, 1953, Lake Borgne; Dec. 1958 at Myrtle Grove (fide GHL); Nov. 28-..., 1977 in Metairie (JG, m.ob.--photos RDP); Nov. 13, 1981, New Orleans (MM); Nov. 21, 1982, Labranche (fide JRS--killed by hunters); Nov. 26, 1982, New Orleans (RDP,NN--2); Jan. 2, 1984, Fourchon Rd. (NN,RDP,DM); Nov. 22?, 1984, Mandeville (CS?); Dec. 27, 1987, New Orleans (RDP,MK, SH); winter 1988-89......; winter 1989-90; ....., 1991 New Orleans (NN); Dec. 26, 1992 (...) WHITE-WINGED SCOTER (Melanitta fusca) Casual winter visitor. The nine records of this species make it the least common of the three in recent years; see however, the discussion in Lowery (1974). The dated records are: Mar. 20, 1890, New Orleans (fide GHL); Mar. 27, 1965, Grand Isle (SAG); Dec. 1, 1973, Bonnet Carre Spillway (RJS,MW); Nov. 27-28, 1975, Lake Pontchartrain (NN,m.ob.); Nov. 23, 1982, New Orleans (MM);Nov. 19, 1989, Lake Catouatche (DM); Nov. 29-...1989, Lake Pontchartrain (DM,NN,RDP,GG); Dec. 21, 1991, L. Pontchartrain (RDP,NN,GG). COMMON GOLDENEYE (Bucephala clangula) Uncommon to rare winter visitor. Although this species is never common, often one or two can be found after patient searching on Lake Pontchartrain, on the deeper ponds in the eastern part of New Orleans (now disappearing), or on Bayou St. John. Although goldeneyes depart rather early in spring, there are two interesting late records from the area or near it: May 5, 1986, by Kopman, without specific location, and June 15, 1894 on Cat Island, MS, collected by Blakemore. Expected dates are November 15 to March 1 and extreme dates of occurrence are Nov. 3, 1991 on U.S. 11 (RDP) and Mar. 22, 1970 at New Orleans (RDP). BUFFLEHEAD (Bucephala albeola) Regular winter resident, more common on north shore of Lake Pontchartrain While the Bufflehead is not often seen on the south shore of Lake Pontchartrain except in the extreme eastern part of the city ("South Point"), it is quite regular, even common on the north shore, as at Mandeville and Fontainbleu St. Park, and may be encountered almost anywhere where diving ducks might be expected. Buffledheads may be expected between..... HOODED MERGANSER (Lophodytes cucullatus) Uncommon winter visitor, The Hooded Merganser is one of those species which are not actually rare in Southeast Louisiana but are nonetheless difficult to find. It is often found on isolated wooded ponds and sloughs, but only rarely in the open water situations characteristic of its cousins, the Red-breasted and Common Mergansers. Although it has been regular on certain ponds off Airline Hiway in Reserve, an opportunistic or random sighting is the most likely, if one knows what a Hooded Merganser looks like in flight. The extreme dates of occurrence are October 21, 1965 on Lake Pontchartrain (BMM) and April 23, 1994 at Port Sulphur (NN,RDP). COMMON MERGANSER (Mergus merganser) Casual winter visitor. There are about 16 records of the Common Merganser, which is slightly more common inland and in north Louisiana. The 17 records in the last 30 years is probably a reasonable reflection of its true abundance in Southeast Louisiana. The records span the period Nov. 11-Apr. 19, with an anomalous June 3, 1933 record. The records are: Jan. 21, 1932, Point-a-la-Hache (HCO); Jan. 24, 1932, Myrtle Grove (HCO--2); June 3, 1933, Lake Borgne (HCO); April 19, 1936, Grand Isle (AD); Dec. 28, 1957, Grand Isle (SAG); Feb. 6, 1960, Slidell (SAG); Nov. 22, 1969, Mandeville (RJN); Dec. 8, 1977, Reserve (MW); Nov. 11, 1978, Laplace (RJS,MW); Nov. 18, 1978, Bonnet Carre Spillway (RJS,MW); Jan. 8-Feb 2?, 1980, Metairie (...); Dec. 26, 1982, New Orleans (MW--5); Jan. 10-Mar. 3, 1985, Mandeville (PS,JH?); winter 1986-87, Mandeville (JH,m.ob.); Mar. 5, 1987, Fourchon Rd. (CK,PW); ......(NN,RDP); Dec. 23, 1990-[Feb. 22?,1991] New Orleans (AS,GS, et al). RED-BREASTED MERGANSER (Mergus serrator) Common winter visitor. This species can be found regularly on Lake Pontchartrain, close to shore, and throughout coastal Southeast Louisiana on deep lakes, ponds, and open water. Expected dates of occurrence are November 20 to May 1; extreme dates are Oct. 25, 1928 at Main Pass of the Mississippi River (AMB) and May 20, 1967 at Grand Isle (SAG). There is one out of season record from North Island in the Chandeleurs: June 11, 1971 (RDP,RJN,MM). RUDDY DUCK (Oxyura jamaicensis) Uncommon winter visitor. The Ruddy Duck is most often found on deep ponds in residential areas of the eastern part of New Orleans. Otherwise, it may be found almost anywhere there are other diving ducks--occasionally on the lake, occasionally on Fourchon Road. The Ruddy Duck went essentially unrecorded on New Orleans Christmas Counts before 1973, and has evidently increased due to the availability of these newly-dug artificial lakes in New Orleans. Expected dates are November 5 to April 10; extreme dates are Sept. 2, 1986 at New Orleans (CL,DM) and May 22, 1977 at New Orleans (RDP,SP). Although there are no records of the very similar Masked Duck for this area, the possibility should be kept in mind. [MASKED DUCK (Oxyura dominica)] HYPOTHETICAL There is one report of this congener of the Ruddy Duck from the western edge of of the checklist area: Jan. 19, 1992 near Thibodeaux? (GW). Recent population increases in Texas make it worthwile to look for this species, which is easily identified by the striped face, especially in Southwest Louisiana, but in this area as well. ORDER Facloniiformes FAMILY Cathartidae VULTURES BLACK VULTURE (Coragyps atratus) Uncommon to common resident and breeding bird. While the Black Vulture is not uncommon south of New Orleans and north of Lake Pontchartrain, it is not especially common elsewhere and seems rarely to be found over the coastal marsh. Brown and Amadon (1968) remark that the Black Vulture is probably the most common of all western hemisphere birds of prey, largely because of large Mexican populations. Recent biochemical taxonomic research places the vultures in the stork family..... TURKEY VULTURE (Cathartes aura) Common resident and breeding bird. The number of Turkey Vultures recorded on New Orleans Christmas Counts has risen since the early 1970's, a fact which may simple reflect changing land use patterns. Turkey Vultures nest on the ground in brushy tangles and briar patches, or in hollow logs or stumps. They common sleep in roots of significant size. FAMILY Accidpitridae HAWKS, HARRIERS OSPREY (Pandion haliaetus) Uncommon migrant, uncommon to rare in winter (mostly near Venice), undoubtedly breeding. This beautiful hawk may be seen anywhere in migration, but is regularly found in winter mainly in the vicinity of Venice. There have, however, been several recent winter records from the north shore of Lake Pontchartrain and winter records near the south shore of the lake, formerely virtually unknown, have been more frequent. The question of breeding is a difficult one. There is at least one definite nesting, represented by a nest active in the breeding season for at least seven years, from March 30, 1974 (MM,m.ob.) through the summer of 1980. In addition, Donald Bradburn reports that he observed nesting near Lacombe in the 1930's, through 1942. Ospreys nest in numbers on Horn Island, Miss., and a few apparently nest on Ship Island as well. So while it seems likely that Ospreys do nest in Louisiana, there is no current evidence that that is the case, although there are additional summer records: June 23, 1974 in St. Bernard Parish (RJN, et al), and on the Mississippi River below Venice on Aug. 9, 1985 (DM,RDP--2). Several were seen on May 26-7, 1995 from Ft. Jackson south to Tiger Pass. Although the Osprey is found on virtually every winter trip to Venice, with numbers of three or four not unusual, and there are several winter records from the Reserve-Spillway area, winter occurrences near New Orleans are rare. They include Dec. 26, 1983 (FB,CK); one on US 11, Feb. 4, 1984 (DM,NN); Dec. 27, 1993 (DM).... Expected dates are March 25 to May 1 and September 20 to November 25, although the numerous winter records the late fall and early spring dates uncertain. Extreme dates of occurrence in spring are Feb. 26, 1967 at Venice and May 28, 1984 at Venice (NLN,DM); in fall the dates are Aug. 11, 1957 at New Orleans (SAG) and Dec. 7, 1958 at Ft. Jackson (DS). AMERICAN SWALLOW-TAILED KITE (Elanoides forficatus) Uncomon to rare summer, mostly in Pear River bottoms. The Swallow-tailed Kite is one of the best-loved birds of Southeastern Louisiana; one of the high points of spring is the sight of the first migrating Swallow-tailed Kites in late March. They evidently breed in the Pearl River basin, and perhaps elsewhere--in or near Lafitte NP perhaps, or north and west of Lake Pontchartrain. They can be found in Honey Island Swamp, for example, from May through some time in August, but are rarely seen anywhere in fall migration. Nesting is assumed, but has not been documented-- although birds of the year have been seen. George Beyer wrote, in 1879, that "During the early part of September, it may be seen on the shores of Lake Pontchartrain, Lake Borgne, etc., in flocks of fifteen or twenty individuals." Currently one of the best places to see a Swallow-tailed Kite is near old US 11 in the Honey Island Wildlife Management area, especially on the dirt roads which go south from it. Even more profitable recently has been the stretch of Interstate 59 between the Pearl River and the Mississippi line. It is sometimes seen by canoers in the area, and ought to be found in the new Bogue Chitto NWR. The call is a short, sharp kleet!, kleet-kleet! (most often), or kleet-kleet-kleet! (RDP). Expected dates are March 25 to about September 1; extreme dates of occurrence are Feb. 27, 1993 in Plaquemines Parish (JS) aand Feb. 28, 1959 at Grand Isle (ART,EDL,MEC) and Aug. 31, 1972 at Pontchatoula (AWP,Ted Joanen). Apparent migrants have been seen as late as the end of May in lower Plaquemines Parish. WHITE-TAILED KITE (Elanus caeruleus) Rare vagrant or winter visitor It is difficult to know exactly what the status of this kite (now White-tailed Kite again, after briefly being lumped with Black-shouldered Kite) is in Southeastern Louisiana; what is written today may be proved wrong tomorrow. Before 1983 there were but two records for this region, nearly a century apart: Oct. 11, 1890 at Kenner (GEB) and Nov. 27, 1977 near Raceland (NN,RDP). Up to that time, there was only one other record for Louisiana, but that was of a nesting in north Louisiana. Then, in the fall and winter of 1982-83, two pairs wintered in Southwest Mississippi near US 90 and the Louisiana border, and apparently two separate pairs nested in St. Tammany Parish the following summer, including one north of La 36 near the St. Tammany townsite, discovered on June 5 (RDP). This pair apparently nested twice and fledged young in late August (JH,JFH,HP), with an adult seen as late as Sep. 5 (JH). Records during December 1983 and January 1984 near Abita Springs may have been of one or more of these birds. There was a sighting at White Kitchen in February 1985 (Krista Morgan) and there have been one, possibly two sightings at the "Turf Farm" south of La 36 between the intersection of La 1088 and Abita Springs. The large open fields north of the lake resulting from clearcutting offer exzcellent habitat for these birds. More recently, single birds were seen near Alliance and near Myrtle Grove during the spring of 1989, and then again in September and October (three occasions, Sep. 17-Oct. 7 NN,RDP,m.ob.), 5 -1/4 miles south of Lake Hermitage Road. This drained area, almost prairie-like, is again excellent habitat for Black-shouldered Kites; they may very well have nested there, since as many as four were seen in September 1989. There were additional records in the fall of 1993: Nov. 21 at Alliance (NN,RDP,GG) and Nov. 26 at Myrtle Grove (NN,DM,PY..- -2). Recently this species has been seen regularly in Southwest Louisiana, near the Texas border, from which direction the expansion presumably has come. All or most of these records have been in winter. MISSISSIPPI KITE (Ictinia misissippiensis) Common summer resident. The Mississippi Kite is a conspicuous summer resident of sizeable deciduous woodlands in Southeast Louisiana. It still nests within the city limits of New Orleans, expecially on the west bank of the river and in the eastern part of the city. Good places to look for it are on the Mississippi River batture above New Orleans, along I10 in New Orleans East, near Paris Road, in the Bonnet Carre Spillway, and so on. There is some indication that numbers are declining locally, but it is difficult to sort out the effects of a true decline from the massive changes in habitat near the city, which makes them hard to find in areas where they were once common. In fall, Mississippi Kite migration becomes conspicuous after about August 1. Expected dates are April 20 to September 1, although an occasional individual will be seen well into September. Extrerme dates of occurrence are Mar. 4, 1956 at New Orleans (SAG) and Oct. 9, 1989 at Grand Isle (AS,GS). BALD EAGLE (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) Rare breeding bird (September-March) and rare to casual winter visitor. There are at least six active Bald Eagle nests in Southeast Louisiana, and probably two or three more not known to the author. The best known and most accessible to viewing is at White Kitchen, St. Tammany Par., just east of the intersection of US 90 and 190, on land now owned by the Nature Conservancy. Other nests are on Lake Salvador, near Jesuit Bend, north of Paradis, below Lafitte, and in the Good Hope oil field. Nesting birds arrive in late September and depart by about the first of April, as soon as young are fledged. Wintering individuals may be seen occasionally, almost anywhere, but especially in the Bonnet Carre Spillway area. Some typical arrival dates are Sept. 16, 1973 in the Pearl River bottoms, Sept. 16, 1976 at Lafitte (FB), Oct. 2, 1977 at White Kitchen (PS), and Sept. 22, 1989 at Paradis. The latest record is May 13, 1984 near des Allemandes (RDP,DM). One of the few summer records for the area is of one in the summer of 1991 at Bayou Sauvage NWR. NORTHERN HARRIER (Cicus cyaneus) Common winter visitor to the coastal marsh. The Northern Harrier ("Marsh Hawk") is a familiar sight coursing low over marshes and fields in winter, easily identified by its somewhat "rocking" flight on dihedral wings, and white base of the tail. It should be noted that the much rarer Black-shouldered Kite often can be mistaken for a Marsh Hawk, although its greater inclination to hover often will give it away. New Orleans Christmas Cout data indicate a decline in the mid- 1960's, a slight recovery around 1970 followed by further decline into the early to mid 1970's, and finally a peak in the late 1970's. Expected dates are October 10 to April 5; extreme dates of occurrence are Sept. 5, 1993 at Grand Isle (RDP) [previously Sept. 20, 1987 at Grand Isle (MM,AS,GS)] and Apr. 15, 1961 at Venice (SAG). SHARP-SHINNED HAWK (Accipiter striatus) Uncommon winter resident. This small woodland hawk is much the commoner of the two regular accipiters in Southeast Louisiana; it is occasionally seen in large numbers during fall migration, following a cold front around the end of September. On such occasions, perhaps dozens might be counted, although vastly greater numbers are sometimes noted in coastal Southwest Louisiana. The "sharpy" can usually be recognized by its combination of a long tail with sharp "corners" and a head which projects only modestly beyond the wing. The male is only about the size of a blue jay, but the female is considerably larger, making confustion with male Cooper's Hawk possible. Although there is concern over the status of this hawk--as there should be with all raptors--its number have held relatively constant over the past 20 years. A winter day a-field will usually yield one or more Sharpys.. Expected dates are October 5 to April 15; extreme dates of occurrence are Sep. 21, 1960 in Lafourche Par. (RDP,MM,NN,SP) and May 17, 1976 (NN). There are two out-of-season records: Aug. 5, 1890 at Mandeville (GEB) and July 14, 1962 at Reserve (RJS). COOPER'S HAWK (Accipiter cooperii) Quite uncommon winter visitor, perhaps a sparce breeder. As breeding populations in the northern and eastern United States have declined, this species became correspondingly scarce in this area in winter. In recent years, however, there has been a modest but definite increase in numbers. Because of the similarity in size of male Cooper's and female Sharp-shinned Hawks, this species should be identified with care (it is perhaps one of the most frequently misidentified of all North American birds). Cooper's Hawk has a head which projects well beyond the wing and its long tail is conspicuously rounded (although the tailed on a Sharp-shinned Hawk can look rounded if it is spread). A female is more likely to be confused with a Broad- winged Hawk than a sharpy. Cooper's Hawk apparently breeds sparingly in the area, although evidence is quite skimpy. It is definitely known to have nested near Livingston, just west of the checklist area, and has been found in the breeding season near Empire and Laffite (fide DM). A local falconer also claims to have evidence of nesting or summering. George Beyer claimed to have shot a female on Aug. 2, 1890 and a male on Aug. 11 of the same year, on "Pine Island," near Madisonville. A recent August record is Aug. 8, 1988 at Grand Isle (RDP,MM?). Expected dates are October 5 to April 1; extreme dates of winter occurrence are Aug. 19, 1958 (SAG) and Apr. 25, 1976 at Venice (MM,NN,RH). NORTHERN GOSHAWK (Accipiter gentilis) Accidental in winter. There is one record of this magnificent raptor from the edge of the checklist area. It is of a bird shot at Amite on November 30, 1972. The bird had been banded near Duluth, Minn. on Aug. 30 of the same year. RED-SHOULDERED HAWK (Buteo lineatus) Common resident. The Red-shouldered Hawk is the standard breeding hawk of deep woods and swamp throughout the area. Its loud and distinctive cry carries a long distance, making it possible to hear one of these birds almost anywhere in Southeast Louisiana. There is even a record of one soaring over Curlew Island. Red-shouldered Hawks are probably most common in cypress-tupelo swamp, where they commonly nest--as they do in other deep woodland areas, near the top of a large tree. While the bird has nearly vanished from areas in the northeastern U.S. where it was once common, it seems not to have suffered any decline in Louisiana. On New Orleans Christmas Counts, the number recorded has remained essentially constant since the 1950's at about 0.5 individuals per party hour. The essential field marks, often easier to see in flight than those given in the field guides, are the crescent-shaped "windows" near the wing tips (base of primaries). Red-shouldered Hawks are relatively long-winged and long-tailed, and of course one can often see the red shoulder or the tail stripes of the adult. BROAD-WINGED HAWK (Buteo platypterus) Common migrant, regular (uncommon to common) local breeder, and casual winter visitor near the coast. This small buteo is encountered in Southeast Louisiana mainly as a migrant, though rarely in the kinds of numbers that are typical of its favorred migration routes (including southwest Louisiana, in fall). It does, however, breed regularly north of Lake Pontchartrain in mixzed pine-deciduous woods, often near creek or river bottoms. In summer its thin whistled call will often be heard even when the bird cannot be found (take care, however, not to confuse it with the similar call of the Mississippi Kite). It is also common enough on the coast in winter so that it has come to be expected at Venice and Grand Isle. This should by no means lull one into careless identification of a Broad- wing in winter. In spite of more than two dozen well-documented winter records, including some calling birds, Broad-winged Hawks in winter should be assumed to be extraordinary and should be reported, with careful details. Many of the birds seen in the winter are immatures and can be identified by their small size, broad wings, bronwnish striped tail, prominent superciliary stripe, and, especially, the dark trailing edge of the wing. There are at least two excellent photographs of winter Broad-wings from the lower delta (RDP,DM). Expected dates of migrants are April 1 to May 5 and August 10 to November 15; extreme dates of occurrence in spring are March 26, 1978 at Grand Isle (MM,NN,JR), and in fall, July 28, 1979 at New Orleans (JR--4) and Dec. 2, 1961 at Triumph (SAG). There is no way to know whether the latter bird was overwintering. SWAINSON'S HAWK (Buteo swainsoni) Casual fall migrant or winter visitor. There are at least 16 records of this western raptor, all but one prior to December 2. The most likely time to encounter a Swainson's Hawk in the area is from mid-October to the end of November near the coast, preferably near Venice. The distribution of records is as follows: Sept. (3), Oct. (2), Nov. (6), Dec. (1), Jan. (1), and Feb. (1). A Swainson's Hawk, apparently captured in New Orleans East in 1980, was in the New Orleans Zoo through March 1983 (RDP, Bill Clark; photos AS). The records are: Jan. 5-7, 1969 at Reserve (RJS), Sep. 7, 1970 at Golden Meadow (RJN,RJS), Sep. 11, 1978 at Leeville (RJS,RH); Nov. 26, 1978 at Ft. Jackson (JR,NN,RDP); Oct. 14, 1979 at Venice (RDP,MB,JR--5); Nov. 10, 1979 at Laplace (MW,RJS); Sep. 30, 1980 at Reserve (MW); Nov. 5, 1982 in Bonnet Carre Spillway (RJS); Dec. 2, 1984 at Madisonville (MM,DM,NN,RDP); Nov. 16, 1986 at Venice (JW,GC); Feb. 7, 1987 at Venice (SWC,DLD,DM); Nov. 8, 1987 at New Orleans (RDP--2); Nov. 19, 1987 at Port Sulphur (...); Oct. 6, 1988 Port Sulphur to Venice (NN,RDP--7); Nov. ..., 1989 (RDP,NN); Dec. 23, 1990 (GC,NN,RDP--ph); Oct. 29, 1992 at New Orleans (KVR). ZONE-TAILED HAWK (Buteo albonotatus) Accidental The single record of this species remains one of the most remarkable birds ever recorded on a New Orleans Christmas Count; it is of a female found on Dec. 23, 1985 by Tristan Davis and others and identified the next day (SAG,NN,RDP, PW, CK,CS,JH, JHSr,GO). It was captured later in the day (Dec. 24) by Davis and Nancy Newfield (et al), and was taken to New Orleans' Audubon Zoo Bird Rehabilitation Center. The bird, which was found to have been shot, eventually died while being exercised in anticipation of release. Excellent photographs were obtained in the field (RDP) and in the hand. This is the only record for Louisiana. RED-TAILED HAWK (Buteo jamaicensis) Common winter visitor, breeding sparingly in the Florida Parishes The Red-tailed Hawk is the common wintering Buteo of Louisiana. It can be found anywhere there are reasonably open fields for hunting. Especially large flights of Red-tails might be seen on the heels of cool fronts in middle to late October. Red-tailed Hawks evidently breed sparingly north of Lake Pontchartrain; certainly there have been recent summer records from that general area. Red-tails vary from the very dark melanistic birds (including the rare race harlani , "Harlan's Hawk, which has been recorded on at least six occasions between Oct. 29 and Jan. 16) to the very light krideri ("Krider's Red-tail"). Two invariant characteristics are the blotched or patchy back and the dark leading edge of the wing. The distinct petagial marks help distinghish the Red- tail from some other buteos. The Red-tailed Hawk has held its own on New Orleans Christmas Bird Counts since 1960 at about 0.6 birds per party hour. The expected dates of occurrence are October 1 to April 1; extreme dates are Aug. 13, 1959 at New Orleans (SAG) and Apr. 25, 1976 at Venice (MM,NN,RH). The "summer" records include June 22, 1957 at Covington (SAG). FERRUGINOUS HAWK (Buteo regalis) Casual to accidental winter visitor. This large, light-plumaged buteo has recently declined over much of its breeding range. It is accidental in Louisiana, or at best casual, and records would be expected primarily from the western or southwestern part of the state. Because of the great variation in plumage of the Red-tailed Hawk, observers should be extremely cautious about identifying a buteo thought to be of this species. It is big-headed and short-necked, it has prominent wrist marks, and darkish-feathered tarsi. The white wing "patches" are distinctive, but are similar to those sometimes seen in light phase Red-tails. Although there are four records of Ferruginous Hawk for Southeast Louisiana, only the first record is thoroughly satisfactory. The records are Nov. 1, 1957 to Feb. 2, 1958 near Slidell (SAG,MEL,BM,BJD); Feb. 23, 1971 at the Rigolets (JK); Dec. 7, 1974 at Ft. Jackson (LS); and Nov. 19, 1978 at Venice (BC?). ROUGH-LEGGED HAWK (Buteo lagopus) Casual winter visitor. There are at least nine records of the Rough-legged Hawk , which only rarely makes it into Southeast Louisiana. Although care is essential in its identification, it is, nonetheless, a rather distinctive hawk. Long-winged, with a long tail which is white at the base but has a rather large dark terminal band, and characterized by a prominent dark band on its lower belly, the Rough-legged Hawk appears light headed when perched or flying (the Red-tail is usually dark-faced). Note, of course, that the Red-tail shows a white base to the tail. Rough-legs like to hover, but so do Red-tailed Hawks. The records, which span the period October to March, but which concentrate in December and January are: Mar. 12, 1933 at Grand Isle (GH*); Jan. 27, 1937 at Grand Isle (GLT); Dec. 14, 1968 at New Orleans (DS); Dec. 27, 1977 at Reserve (MW--2); Feb. 8, 1981 at New Orleans (NN, et al); Jan. 30-Feb. 14, Bayou Sauvage (DM,m.ob.); late Oct., 1982 in Tangipahoa Par. (fide NLN); Jan. 1984 on US 11 (DM, et al); Nov. 22, 1988 at Lacombe (AS,GS,CK). GOLDEN EAGLE (Aquila chrysaetos) Accidental in winter. Although Oberholser (1938) reported Golden Eagles shot near Bogalusa and Maringouin prior to 1930, the only definitive recent record is of one which was shot in the Pear River bottoms during November 1975. Since the Golden Eagle does wander widely and occurs erratically in southwest and central Louisiana, it might be expected to occur here occasionally, and there are reports suggestive of that. AMERICAN KESTREL (Falco sparverius) Common winter resident; uncommon to rare breeding bird mostly north of Lake Pontchartrain. The Kestrel is the commonest of the hawks of Louisiana, though primarily present only in winter, and will be seen hovering over prey or watching from a telephone wire or branch of a dead tree, almost anywhere away from the immediate crush of civilization. It is, in fact. the only hawk--except perhaps for migrating Mississippi Kites, that is likely to be seen in or near the typical residential neighborhood--along a drainage canal, or on a transmission tower. Kestrels do breed north of Lake Pontchartrain, but in numbers small enough to be rather inconspicuous. Although it has been known to breed in uptown New Orleans, that was surely unusual. Though the Kestrel may have declined since the 1950's, Christmas Count data accumlated since 1960 indicate essentially constant numbers (0.6 birds per party-hour). Based on the AOU Checklist, two subspecies occur, F. s. sparverius and F. s. paulus. The latter is the breeding form. An interesting record is May 16, 1985 off Southwest Pass of the Mississippi River (MM). The expected dates of wintering are September 1 to April 5; extreme dates away from breeding areas are July 24, 1982 at Irish Bayou (MM) and May 31, 1978 at New Orleans (JR). MERLIN (Falco columbarius) Uncommon to almost rare winter visitor. If anything, the Merlin may have increased in numbers after a low in the 1960's, although this is nothing more than an impressionistic judgement. Certainly a fall or winter trip to Grand Isle or especially Venice will generally yield one or more of these magnificent, if small, falcons. Beginners often have trouble separating them from the smaller and narrower-winged Kestrel, but to those familiar with them, they are very different birds--very strong fliers and very agressive birds of prey. During the 1970's and 1980's, a good place to find a Merlin was on the East Campus of UNO. Expected dates of wintering are October 1 to April 15, while extreme dates of occurrence are Sep. 5, 1984 at New Orleans (NN) and June 1, 1932 at Grand Isle (fide HCO). PEREGRINE FALCON (Falco peregrinus) Uncommon winter visitor. The Peregrine is unquestionably the most magnificent of the birds of prey which winter in Louisiana. Although they are at worst rare, and although they have a habit of finding winter roosting and hunting spots and remaining near them all winter, it is nonetheless true that seeing a Peregrine is often enough to make a day afield a success. In Southeast Louisiana, the best place to hope to see this bird is on Fourchon Road, or the nearby beach, an especially on the watertower along the road. Sometimes the bird will be found on a communications tower instead, or near the beach. Peregrines are probably most often seen on migration--except for those which hand around all winter. Perhaps no more that three have been seen on a trip to a single area, e.g., three in the Fourchon area on Sep. 30, 1978 (MB,JR). One wintered in the New Orleans CBD for several years--and may still--beginning in the winter of 1981-82. An injured Peregrine found in lower Lafourche Parish in the winter of 1984-85 had been banded earlier in the year in the Brooks Range of northern Alaska. Expected dates are October 1 to April 15; extreme dates are Sep. 7, 1959 at Reserve (RFC,MW) and May 9, 1987 at Grand Isle (MM,DM). ORDER Galliformes FAMILY Phasianidae QUAIL, PHEASANTS, GROUSE WILD TURKEY (Melagris gallopavo) Common to resident of deciduous and pine flat woodlands with adjacent open areas. The secretive habits of the turkey make estimates of its numbers difficult. They are rarely, if ever, encountered south of Lake Pontchartrain, being most common in pinewoods with adjacent fields into which they will venture to feed. Recently turkeys have been most often seen by birders near the Pearl River Wildlife Management Area and at the Mid-South Turf Farms on La. 36 between Abita Springs and St. Tammany. Occasionally, when the Pearl River is in flood, the Honey Island stretch of old U.S. 11 can be a good place to see turkeys. Most areas have been restocked with turkeys by the LWFC. NORTHERN BOBWHITE (Colinus virginianus) Common to uncommon resident. The familar Bobwhite quail is somewhat common in open, grassy areas with scrub or brush for cover, and along woodland edges. Observers generally agree that the Bobwhite has declined significantly in numbers during the past twenty years, at least near New Orleans. It is hard to know whether this only reflects habitat loss near the city, or a more general decline, due to peticides, or some other cause. ORDER Gruiformes FAMILY Rallidae RAILS, GALLINULES, COOTS YELLOW RAIL (Coturnicops novaboracensis) Rare and secretive winter resident. Although there are 13 records of this elusive rail from Southeast Louisiana, there are but three since 1928, certainly a tribute to the intrepid observers of a half-century ago. On the other hand, there may have been significant declines on the wet prarie nesting grounds of this rail which have affected its abundance here. The Yellow Rail is one of the most sought-after "regular" species of Southeast Louisiana--to little avail. In recent years there have been scattered opportunistic records from Southwest Louisiana, and quite recently, records accumulated during rice mowing operations in southwest-central Louisiana, near Crowley. It is not really known whether the occurrence of Yellow Rails in inland tall grass fields is only a feature of migration, with winter taking place on the coast, or whether they perhaps winter somewhat inland as well. Should one encounter mowing operations from mid-October on, or perhaps marsh burning near the coast, he should stop and watch for the possibility of flushing of Yellow Rails. All of this applies, of course, to the Black Rail as well, which is more secretic yet. Of the Yellow Rail, Beyer wrote that "hunting dogs very frequently catch them alive." Specimens of several of the records listed below still survive in the Tulane collection. The records of Yellow Rail span the period November 5 to April 8. There are no January records, perhaps only reflecting reduced field work during this month. The known records are: Nov. 19, 1865, New Orleans (fide HCO)*; Apr. 4, 1874, New Orleans (fide HCO)*; Mar. 14, 1891, New Orleans (fide HCO)*; Nov. 5, 1892, New Orleans (fide HCO)*; Dec. 26, 1893, Diamond (fide HCO); Dec. 15-25, 1901, Plaquemines Par. (HLB); Feb. 25, 1902, Plaquemines Par. (HLB); Mar. 26, 1926, Grand Isle (ESH)*; Apr. 4, 1926, Grand Isle (ESH)*; Apr. 8, 1926, Grand Isle (ESH)*; Mar. 31, 1928, Grand Isle (ESH)*; Dec. 31, 1977, New Orleans (SAG); Dec. 23, 1978, Laplace (RBH,BC); Nov. 8, 1982, New Orleans (TB). BLACK RAIL (Laterallus jamaicensis) Rare and secretive winter resident. There seem to exist only two verifiable records of the Black Rail in Southeast Louisiana, an undated one mention by Lowery (1974), and an individual collected at Grand Isle on Apr. 1, 1937, reported by Oberholser (1938). This paucity of records presumably can be attributed mainly to the near impossibility of flushing the Black Rail. There are several recent sight records from Southwest Louisiana and some from Dauphin Island, Al. There is even a report of extensive nesting in Brazoria Co., TX, though some skepticism may be warranted. Black Rails are probably most common in Spartina patens meadows, which unfortunately offer fabulous cover, or perhaps in saltgrass-salicornia salt marsh (Bent, 1926). Stewart and Robbins (1958) describe the habitat in Maryland as "a mixture of salt-meadow grass (Spartina patens) and spike grass [saltgrass, Distichlis spicata]." In the salicornia-saltgrass habitat, as on Grand Terre Island, for example, they might be much more easily flushed than in S. patens. They are known to sing at night during the breeding season, perhaps after 10 p.m., and are readily attracted to a recorded version of their "song." Audubon, in his Ornithological Biography, wrote "I have received a letter from my friend J. Trudeau, M.D., in which he says that his father shot a considerable number of these rails last winter (1836-37) in the vicinity of New Orleans." CLAPPER RAIL (Rallus longirostris) Common resident of mostly saline marsh. Although especially common in salt marsh, where the King Rail rarely if ever occurs, this species will intrude into the coastal brackish marsh, where it may interbreed with Rallus elegans. It may be that all of the "Clapper Rails," including this species and the next, willl be merged. Because Louisiana Clapper Rails have a very rich coloration, one cannot distinguish these species on the basis of the supposed rich color of the King Rail. On the other hand, the Clapper Rail will always have a grayish face. Other characters, such as the less dramatically contrasting white and black of the flanks, are less useful. The calls are more similar than some think, although the King Rail does have a richer, fuller call, contrasing with the sharper kik-kik-kik of the Clapper Rail. Typical habitat is the Spartina alterniflora salt marsh which is so ubiquitous along the coast. KING RAIL (Rallus elegans) Rather common resident of intermediate and brackish marsh, mostly near the coast. There is some feeling that perhaps the King Rail has declined in numbers in recent years, by comparison with its cousin, the Clapper Rail, but there are no data to support this conclusion. The Clapper Rail is more likely to found near New Orleans, where the marsh is less saline than nearer the coast. For information on the life histories of the King Rail and the previous species, consult the AOU Monograph by Meanley (1969), which is based in considerable measure on observations made in Louisiana. VIRGINIA RAIL (Rallus limicola) Uncommon winter resident. To some extent the Virginia Rail looks like a diminutive version of the King Rail, and often is found in the same brackish habitat. It is far more often heard than seen, and often its vocalizations go unrecognized. One of its called resembles a long, slow, drawn- out King Rail call; another is a harsh ":rare-ick' " , and there are other assorted noises. There is a report of nesting, with young photographed, from below Leevile, on May 25, 1969 (JK,WW). This writer has not seen the photographs. Another report of a juvenal bird also suggested nesting (NLN). The maximum number recorded is 31 on Apr. 10, 1983, near the Pearl River at U.S. 90, during flood conditions. Virginia Rails not infrequently turn up in residential backyards during fall migration. The expected dates of occurrence are October 1 to April 15; extreme dates are Sep. 4, 1981 at New Orleans (JR--dead) and Apr. 22, 1989 in St. Tammany and Lafourche Parishes (DM,NN,RDP). SORA (Porzana carolina) Uncommon to fairly common winter visitor. The Sora is found mostly in fresh to brackish marsh, where it can be quite common. There has been some decline in numbers during the past two decades, but there is disagreement on how great that decline has been. The only quantitative inforemation is that numbers recorded on the New Orleans Christmas Bird Counts have dropped since the late 1960's and early 1970's. In evaluating these data, one has to take into account the destruction of wetlands near the city. Often a vigorous clap will cause Soras to begin calling. There is one "out-of-season" record, June? 28, 1992 at Bayou Sauvage Ref. (NN,RDP). Expected dates of occurrence are September 10 to April 15, while extreme dates are Aug. 23, 1956 at New Orleans (SAG) and May 6, 1971. PURPLE GALLINULE (Porphyrula martinica) Uncommon summer resident of mostly fresh marsh. Although fairly common in the fresh water marshes of Southwestern Louisiana, the Purple Gallinule is often difficult to find in this part of the state. Most of the recent records have come from the Venice area, from the marsh just east of White Kitchen, and from along Paris Rd. in eastern New Orleans. The latter habitat has largely been destroyed. Maximum number recorded is 20 on Paris Rd. on July 25, 1982 (RDP). The Purple Gallinule will only be found on ponds overgrown with aquatic vegetation (water lilies, water hyacinth, etc.). On Lacassine NWR in Southwest Louisiana, nests were mostly in maidencane, with densities of 0.5 individuals per acre. Expected dates are April 15 to about September 15; extreme dates of occurrence are Apr. 6, 1936 at Grand Isle (AD*) and Oct. 7, 1983 at Chalmette (fide CM). COMMON MOORHEN (Gallinula chloropus) Locally common resident. The Common Moorhen ("Common Gallinule") primarily inhabits freshwater ponds and marshes, often with cattails, rushes (Juncus, sp.), and reeds. It seems to be comfortable with deeper water than the Purple Gallinule, which is not often seen swimming. It is also apparently more tolerant of salinity than its showier cousin. Good places to find this species are below Venice along the road to Tidewater and on US 11 in the eastern part of the city. Although relatively uncommon, moorhens might be found in the vicinity of Grand Isle, especially on Theriot Rd. at Port Fourchon. AMERICAN COOT (Fulica americana) Common to abundant winter resident, rare to uncommon summer resident. The American Coot is present in large numbers from about September 1 to May 1. The frequency of summering makes more definite conclusions hazardous. Breeding should be looked for. American Coots have increased since the mid-1960's on New Orleans Christmas Bird Counts. Upwards of one million coots winter in Louisiana. FAMILY Gruidae CRANES SANDHILL CRANE (Grus canadensis) Rare to accidental winter visitor. There are three records of the Sandhill Crane for Southeast Louisiana, all since 1957. It could be expected occasionally in open, wet fields, most likely north of Lake Pontchartrain, since it winters regularly in small numbers in north-central Louisiana near Cheneyville. It is perhaps a little surprising that it is seen no more frequently in Southwest Louisiana than here, in spite of the numbers which winter from Houston down along the central Texas coast. There are two records twenty years apart: Oct. 19, 1957 at White Kitchen, St. Tammany Parish (SAG,RF), Nov. 12, 1977 at Reserve (MW), plus records at Covington, presumably of the same or related birds, beginning with Feb. 3..., 1988 (JH,m.ob.), and ....Dec. 26, 1991 (JH--4); etc.........1992. The most amazing report was of two birds flying along a canal in suburban Metairie on Aug. 30, 1994 (GS). WHOOPING CRANE (Grus americana) FORMERLY The only evidence of the occurrence of the Whooping Crane in Southeast Louisiana is based on two reports by Audubon: a specimen brought to him by his hunter Gilbert....? on Nov. 21, 1821, and nine that Audubon himself said he saw killing an alligtor on April 16, 1822. ORDER Charadriformes Suborder Charadrii Forty-three or forty-four species of "shorebirds" have been recorded in Southeast Louisiana, including the Eskimo Curlew which has not been seen in this century and is nearly extinct if not actually so. Of the 36 regularly occurring species, 12 are essentially migrants, two are resident (Killdeer and Willet), only two are summer residents (Wilson's Plover and Black-necked Stilt), and the remainder are winter residents, though they may be considerably more common in migration than in mid-winter. The status of the American Oystercatcher is still somewhat uncertain, but it may be a permanent resident. FAMILY Charadriidae PLOVERS BLACK-BELLIED PLOVER (Pluvialis squatarola) Common to very common winter resident, mainly on the coast. The Black-bellied Plover is one of the most characteristic birds of the gulf beach, ponds edges near the gulf, and short-grass fields near the coast. It is present only in winter, but that means year-round except for a two-month period centered on mid-July. There are, however, rather frequent records for that period as well. It is not infrequently found in the vicinity of New Orleans, in the Bonnet Carre Spillway, and in similar areas somewhat removed from the coast. LESSER GOLDEN PLOVER (Pluvialis dominica) Uncommon to sometimes common spring migrant; occasional fall migrant. The golden plover will ordinarily only be found on short grass meadows or prairie, and almost exclusively in spring, when it is one of the very earliest of all northbound migrants. Because its fall migration route carries it far from this region, the golden plover is quite uncommon in fall. Very occasionally this species will be found on a mudflat or the gulf beach. In New Orleans the golden plover and other shorebirds which favor short grass habitat are most easily found on the two campuses of the University of New Orleans. They also occur on the Lakefront Airport, and the best coastal location is on the "Exxon Fields" near the east end of Grand Isle. The high count is 600 in New Orleans on March 18, 1979, but Audubon in his journal for March 16, 1821 described a flock of "millions of golden plovers" near the lakefront and Bayou St. John. He also gave a lower and more specific figure of 144,000 and said that one hunter had taken 63 dozen from the flock. The conditions were a blow from the northeast following two or three days of warm weather. The birds were lean, having just completed the trans-gulf passage. Expected dates are March 10 to April 20 in spring, and Aug. 20 to November 10 in fall migration. Extreme dates of occurrence in spring are Feb. 27, 1966 (JK) and May 24, 1979 (JR), both at New Orleans; in fall the extremes are Aug. 6, 1978 (MB) and Nov. 28, 1960 at New Orleans (SAG). MONGOLIAN PLOVER (Charadrius mongolus) Accidental winter vagrant The lone record of the species, of an individual seen and clearly photographed in color (AB 31, 140 (1977) at the Coast Guard station on the east end of Grand Isle on April 22, 1975 (CL,DD,ED), was the first record for the contiguous 48 states. There has seen been one additional record for Louisiana, from Cameron Parish. Although the Grand Isle individual was in alternate (breeding) plumage, it is more likely that future records, if there should be any, would be of immatures or basic-plumaged birds, as was the case in the Cameron record. In that case they would resemble Wilson's Plovers; see Hayman, et al (1986) for identification details. SNOWY PLOVER (Charadrius alexandrinus) Rare migrant and winter resident on sand flats and beaches on or near the gulf. The Snowy Plover is rarely encountered on the beaches of Southeast Louisiana anymore with perhaps only a half-dozen records in the past 15 years. Whether it was once more common here is unknown, but it continues to be relatively easy to find, in small numbers, at Rutherford and Holly Beaches in Cameron Parish. The best place-- indeed almost the only place--to find it is on the beaches on or near Grand Isle. Although there are no breeding records, it is not out of the question, as Snowy Plovers breed or have bred near Mobile, AL. As elsewhere, however, undisturbed sandy beaches and beach ridges are becoming increasing scarce. Records span the period Aug. 5 (1886) to Apr. 2 (1937, AD--Grand Isle). The recent records are (all from Grand Isle): Sep. 6, 1975 (NN,MM); Mar. 22, 1981 (RDP,LO'M); Sep. 24, 1978 (MM,NN); Sep. 6, 1981 (RDP,NN,SN); Dec. 26, 1981 (DM,RDP); and .....,1989?, etc...[1993] WILSON'S PLOVER (Charadrius wilsonia) Common summer resident of sand- strand habitat on beaches, beach ridges, and barrier islands. Uncommon to rare in winter. This plover is a conspicuous feature of coastal beaches and sand-flats in summer and breeds wherever sufficient undisturbed sandy habitat is available along the coast, especially on the barrier islands. Its loud sharp call and staccato rattle immediately betray its presence. Efforts should be made to protect breeding habitat by human interference during the breeding season, especially in areas accessible to ATV's; the habitat is also used by Least Terns and Black Skimmers for breeding. There is one New Orleans record, due to a tropical storm, Sept. 4, 1977 (RDP). Winter records are rather numerous, but Wilson's Plover should not be considered regular at that season. Expected dates of occurrence are March 10 or 15 to November 1; extreme dates of occurrence are Mar. 1, 1991 at Grand Isle (NN, RDP,AS,GS?) and Nov. 27, 1977 at Grand Isle (RDP,NN).[Muth 1991] SEMIPALMATED PLOVER (Charadrius semipalmatus) Uncommon to common migrant, mostly on the coast, uncommon in winter. The Semipalmated Plover is the commonest of the small (Charadrius) plovers, except, of course, during the breeding season, when only Wilson's is expected. Like the others, it is almost always found near the gulf beach, although records along the shore of Lake Borgne would be expected and there are, in fact, New Orleans records. The call is a whisltled chee-we', which is similar to that of the Black-bellied Plover. The maximum count is 80 individuals in the vicinity of Grand Isle (especially Fourchon Beach) on Sept. 4, 1994 (NN,MM). Recent "summer" records include June 19, 1983 (RDP,DM,JN), June 17, 1984 (RDP,DM), June 22, 1985 (RDP,NN--25!), and June 21, 1987 (6+), all on Fourchon Beach. Although expected dates of occurrence are August 1 to June 1, migration periods are something like August 1 into early November and early March to about June 1. Extreme dates, which may be meaningless in view of the "summer" records above, are July 8, 1958 at Grand Isle (ART) and June 10, 1930 on Grand Gosier I. (EVK). PIPING PLOVER (Charadrius melodus) Uncommon, to sometimes common migrant near the gulf beach and uncommon to rare winter resident. Although the Piping Plover is considered threatened, its numbers have not decreased noticeably along the coast of Southeast Louisiana. Of course there are no solid data to support that conclusion, but it seems to be shared by most observers who have birded the area for 10-20 years. Nonetheless, because of its status, numbers should always be recorded and submitted, preferably to LSUMNS. Although the Piping Plover can usually be found at Fourchon Beach or on Grand Isle in winter, it is much more common during its migration passage, when sometimes as many as 20 will be seen along Fourchon Beach. Although it is almost never seen away from sand flats near the gulf beach, there are three New Orleans records, including Aug. 6, 1982 (DM) and Aug. 14, 1983 (DM). There is one "summer" record, June 27, 1976 on Curlew Island in the Chandeleur chain (RDP,LO'M,NN). The Piping Plover rarely vocalizes in Louisiana. During the Piping Plover survey of early February 1991 (fide Rich Martin,LDWF), on the order of 300 were found on the Chandeleur Islands, and .....on the beaches of Grand Isle and Elmer's Island. Expected dates of occurrence are August 5 to April 25; migration periods are from early March through April and early August through October. Extreme dates are July 28, 1991 on Fourchon Beach (RDP,GC--6) [and Aug. 1, 1982 at the same location (RDP,NN,DM--8)] and Apr. 26, 1969 at Grand Isle (RDP,DS). KILLDEER (Charadrius vociferus) Very common to sometimes abundant permanent resident. This familiar plover may be found anywhere there are short grass fields, lawns, golf courses, and even mudflats. The Killdeer nests on the ground and may often be seen herding its atricial young around and showing mock-injury display to distract potential predators. FAMILY Haematopodidae OYSTERCATCHERS AMERICAN OYSTERCATCHER (Haematopus palliatus) Local to Rare summer resident. The American Oystercatcher occurs primarily on the shell-rimmed barrier islands off the delta, especially in or near the Chandeleur Chain, where it nests in small numbers. It has been found on the west shore of Lake Borgne, e.g., Shell Beach, on at least three occasions. There is one New Orleans record, which is one of the few winter records for Louisiana, on January 21, 1983 at Lakefront Airport (DC), following unusually high tides in St. Bernard Parish, from whence come most of the records. The other known winter record for Southeast Louisiana is March 2, 1991 on Grand Terre Is. (RDP,NN,BA,CF). One of the very few records for Grand Isle was of one there on May 30, 1992 (Joe Kleiman, D. Roark). Nests are known from Freemason Is. on May 16, 1913 (WMS) and Isle a Pitre, June 3, 1933 (HCO), and a flightless fledgling was photographed on Curlew Is. on June 26, 1976 (RDP,NN,LO'M). Audubon reported 15 on Isle Dernieres in April 1837 and as many as 21 have been counted on a single trip to ther Chandeleurs in recent times. Recent trips to Grassy Island and Half Moon (or Grand) Island, both off the mouth of the Pear River, have always yielded a pair or two. They have also been seen consistently on Lonsome Is. near the mouth of the Gulf Outlet, but as of 1985 that island was rapidly disappearing. Expected dates are not well known, approximately April 1 to September 15(?). Extreme dates of occurrence are Mar. 26, 1917 in Mississippi Sound (AMB) and Oct. 3, 1984 on North Island (JT, JD--3). FAMILY Recurvirost riae AVOCETS AND STILTS BLACK-NECKED STILT (Himantopus mexicanus) Common to very common summer resident in suitable habitat. The Black-necked Stilt is a common and conspicuous breeder in the coastal and near coastal marsh, wherever nesting and feeding habitat is available. In recent years increased numbers have been found to be wintering at such places as the ponds on US 11, near Grand Isle, and at the Bonnet Carre Spillway. Prior to 1974 (Jan. 10--MW) there was no winter record. The highest winter count was 50+ on US 11 on Dec. 31, 1982 (RDP). In 1938, Oberholser said of this species, admittedly on the basis of limited field work, "The Black-necked Stilt is a rare permanent resident in southern Louisiana of very much less frequent occurrence than in former years." A trip to Fourchon Rd. in Lafourche Parish in July should yield as many as several hundred. Expected dates of occurrence are March 25 to Sep 10; extreme dates are almost impossible to give, but the earliest date in spring can be taken to be Mar. 16, 1986 at Grand Isle (NN,RDP), mainly because late winter records are not frequent. AMERICAN AVOCET (Recurvirostra anericana ) Rare to uncommon winter resident near the coast, in bays, open marshy habitat, and beaches. Although the American Avocet is much more common in coastal southwest Louisiana, it is regular in quite small numbers in coastal situations in Southeast Louisiana, especially in the Fourchon Area. Occasionally one or a few can be found in June or July along Fourchon Road, in Lafourche Parish. There are but four New Orleans records, July 23, 1979 (JR), Oct. 31-Dec. 26, 1982 (RDP,DN), Aug. 4, 1991 on US 11 (NN,RDP), and December ...., 1994 (RDP,GC--...) on US 11 in Bayou Sauvage NWR. The expected dates of occurrence are August 15 to about March 15. The extremes are July 17, 1977 at Grand Isle (MM,NN,RDP) and May 22, 1971, also at Grand Isle (DN). The two June records are June 20, 1982 on Fourchon RD. (RDP,JR,DM,MM) and June 19, 1983 at the same location (DM,JN,RDP). FAMILY Scolopacidae SANDPIPERS GREATER YELLOWLEGS (Tringa melanoleucus) Common winter resident; probably can be found in every month. Although the Greater Yellowlegs (and the Lesser, as well) breeds in Alaska and Canada and winters south to Tierra Del Fuego, it is a regular winter resident and there is barely a two month period when it is not to be found in Louisiana coastal marshes. Indeed, it is not infrequently found, in small numbers, in mid to late June on mudflats near the coast. While ordinarily this species is considerably less common than its smaller cousin, this is sometimes not the case. The Greater Yellowlegs is essentially the size of a Willet and has a much longer bill than the Lesser. The two species are also easily separated by call, that of the Greater Yellowlegs being a three or four note "whistle," compared to the softer two-note call of the Lesser Yellowlegs. Although the expected dates of occurrence are from about August 1 to May 10, arrival of apparent south-bound migrants has been noted as early as July 14 (1979, Bonnect Carre Spillway (RJS,MW), and there are at least two mid-June records, both from Fourchon Rd. in Lafourche Parish: June 20, 1982 (RDP,MM,JR,DM--100) and June 17, 1984 (DM,RDP--1). LESSER YELLOWLEGS ( Tringa flavipes) Very common winter resident, especially on the coast, probably can be found in every month. Although the Lesser Yellowlegs is common from July through May, its numbers are largest in migration, when counts may approach or exceed 1000 individuals. It is the most familiar medium-sized shorebird in the Louisiana marshes and while it is most common near the coast, it can be found on mudflats and marshy pond edges throughout the area. Expected dates of occurrence are July 25 to May 10, with extreme arrival and departure dates of June 27, 1970 (New Orleans, JK) and May 24, 1970 (Grand Isle, RDP). "Out of season" records include June 19, 1983 (RDP,JN,DM) and June 17, 1984 (RDP,DM--5), both in Lafourche Parish. [WOOD SANDPIPER] (Tringa glareola) HYPOTHETICAL A carefully studied bird thought to have been of this species was reported from Fourchon Rd, Lafourche Parish, on Sep. 22, 1976 (RJN,RSK). A description of the sighting was published in American Birds [33:139 (1977)]. This record was rejected by the L.O.S. Bird Records Committee, primarily because it was a sight record of a Eurasian species which could be confused with several other species. SOLITARY SANDPIPER (Tringa solitaria) Uncommon migrant The Solitary Sandpiper is typically found on the edge of a freshwater pond or in swale in a grassy field; it will rarely, if ever, be encountered on a mudflat or the gulf beach. The call is a loud and distinctive wheet-wheet-wheet! , which could be confused only with that of the Spotted Sandpiper. Expected dates of spring and fall migration are March 20 to May 5 and August 10 to September 20. The extreme dates in spring are Mar. 1, 1992 at Grand Isle (AS,GS) [previously March 5, 1900 at New Orleans (AA)] and May 23, 1979 at New Orleans (JR,RDP); in fall the species has been recorded as early as July 26, 1991 (NN) and as late as Oct. 1, 1978 (JR), both from New Orleans. There are six winter records, but only one since 1974: Feb. 15, 1913, New Orleans (HHK), Nov. 27, 1964, Ft. Jackson (SAG), Dec. 28, 1965, Venice CBC, Dec. 30,. 1971, Ft. Jackson (SAG,RDP,RJN,DN), Dec. 10, 1974, New Orleans (JK), and Dec. 27, 1984, Venice (SAG--3). The most recent record is from St. John the Baptist Parish on Feb. 12, 1992 (MW,RJS), not strictly within the province of this list. Maximum number recorded is 152 on Apr. 4, 1992 near the Jefferson/St. Charles Parish line (PY). WILLET (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus) Common to Very Common resident, most on the coast. The Willet is one of only two or three permanent residents among the shorebirds. It is quite uncommon away from the coast, although over two dozen records have accumlated over the years from Reserve, Metairie, and New Orleans. In the coastal marsh and on the gulf beach the Willet is conspicuous and noisy. It nests on raised areas-- ridges,etc.--in the saline or brackish marsh. SPOTTED SANDIPIPER (Actitus macularis) Common winter visitor The Spotted Sanpiper is characteristic of pond edges, seawalls, and stream banks-- seemingly the more barren the shore the better--where it usually occurs singly. It is rarely seen on mudflats or with the large groups of resting or feeding shorebirds which are encounted on the coast. Even the beginner quickly learns its distinctive fluttering or stacatto flight pattern caused by its short wing strokes; the sharp weet-weet! call is also diagnostic. The Spotted Sandpier was reported as breeding in New Orleans by Beyer (fide Oberholser), but it is not clear on what evidence that claim was based. The fact that it is present into late May and that southbound migrants appear in July may have led to confusion on that point. The expected dates of occurrence are July 25 to May 20, with extremes of July 6, 1978 at Delacroix(AS) and June 9, 1933 at Grand Isle (HCO). UPLAND SANDPIPER (Bartramia longicauda) Uncommon migrant found on short- grass fields. While perhaps not as common as 20 years ago, the Upland Sandpiper may nonetheless be expected on short-grass fields, such as the UNO campuses and perhaps lakefront airport, especially during March, and often in the company of Golden Plovers or Buff-breasted Sandpipers. Its tall stance and small head (giving it a "pin-head" look) are distincitive, as is its call. Its "whip-per-it!" call can often be heard at night during fall migrantion, especially in late July and early August. According to Beyer (1900) they were "eagerly hunted and highly praised in lower Louisiana as a game bird." Expected dates of occurrence are March 20 to May 5 in spring, and August 1 to September 20 in fall; extreme dates for spring migrants are Mar. 12, 1978.... and May 26, 1961 at New Orleans (SAG); in fall they are June 29, 1961 at New Orleans (SAG) and Nov. 11, 1977 at New Orleans (?) (JR). Beyer, et al (1908) gave a March 9 record. ESKIMO CURLEW (Numernius americanus) EXTINCT? Although the Eskimo Curlew has not been recorded in Louisiana, with certainty, since 1889, spring records from the Texas coast in the mid-1950's and one or two fall records from the Atlantic coast, leave open the faint possibility that one might again turn up on the coast of Southeast Louisiana. The known records are: Apr. 5-10, 1837, Barataria Bay (JJA), Mar. 30 and Apr. 4, 1881 (fide HCO--collected), and Mar. 16, 1889 at New Orleans (fide HCO--collected). WHIMBREL (Numenius phaeopus) Uncommon spring migrant, rare migrant in fall, along the coast. Although Whimbrels are never common in Southeast Louisiana, they are nevertheless a regular spring migrant, usually seen near Grand Isle, from Fourchon Rd. to the island itself. There are about 20 fall records, and two winter records. The only known inland records are from Frenier, Apr. 30, 1959 (RJS--3) and two New Orleans records, Mar. 27, 1974 (WAM) and Apr. 8, 1983 (fide MM). The fall records are: Jul. 28, ...., Freemason Is. (fide HCO); Aug. 16, 1970, Grand Terre Is. (RBH,RJN--2); Aug. 4, 1974, Grand Terre Is. (RDP); Aug. 22, 1976 (MM,NN) and Aug. 29, 1976 (RDP), Grand Isle; July 17, 1977, Lafourche Parish (MM,RDP,NN--2); Sep. 24, 1978...(MM,NN); Sep. 5-6, 1980, Oct. 3, 1982, Lafourche Par. (MM,DM,RDP); New Orleans (JR,MB); Aug. 14, 1983, Grand Isle (NN,MM,RDP); Oct. 8-9, 1983, Grand Isle (CS,AS,GS,CK); Aug. 25, 1985, Grand Isle (RDP,MM); Sep. 8, 1988 at Grand Isle (MM,RDP); Sep. 11, 1988 at Grand Isle?(...); July 31, 1990, Curlew I. (RM--5), July 28, 1991 (RDP,GC--4); Aug. 14-26, 1992 at Grand Isle (CS, et al); Aug. 14, 1994 at Fourchon (RDP). The winter records are Dec. 19, 1932 at Main Pass (HCO) and Dec. 10, 1989 at Grand Isle (AS,GS,MM). Expected dates in spring are April 20 to May 20; fall records span the period July 17-Oct. 3, and Whimbrels might be "expected" from about Aug. 15 to Sep. 15. Extreme dates in spring are Mar. 19, 1972 at Grand Terre Is (HDP,RJN,MM,RDP) and May 25, 1989 at Grand Isle (....). LONG-BILLED CURLEW (Numenius americanus) Occasional to accidental in winter, rare on the barrier islands in "summer". Although there are at least 16 records of this species from the checklist area, there have been no more than four records away from the islands in the past three decades. Thus, although it was recorded in the past at Mandeville (Dec. 17, 1976) and New Orleans in winter (Nov. 12, 1885) and several times at Grand Isle in the spring, it is now almost never found away from the Chandeleurs or nearby islands, and even there it is not expected. According to Oberholser, E.S. Hopkins "found reported it common at Grand Isle, April 8, 1925, April 22, 1926, and April 7, 1928." Thus there is one March and three April records, six "summer" records spanning the period June 7-Aug. 1, one late August and one September record, and four "winter" records from Nov. 12 to Dec. 17. Some of the "summer" records are: June 7, 1918, Chandeleurs (AMB); June 25, 1969, Isla-a-Pitre (RJN); July 31-Aug. 1, 1969, North Is., Stake Is. (RJN,KPA,RDP); June 25- 27, 1976, Curlew Is. (LO'M,RDP,NN--3); July 9?, 1989, Curlew Is. (RDP); July 31, 1990, Curlew Is. (RM). Note that these summer records span the period June 7-Aug. 1. Recent records on the mainland are Mar. 18, 1961 at Grand Isle (SAG), Aug. 20, 1967 at New Orleans (JK), and Sep. 26, 1982 at Grand Isle (NLN,BC,SN). In addition to the two winter records given above, there is another nineteenth-century record, from Lake Borgne, Dec. 5, 1886, mentioned in Oberholser (1938), and a sighting on Nov. 19, 1978 on E. Timbalier Island (AS,RDP,NN,MM). HUDSONIAN GODWIT (Limosa haemastica) Occasional migrant. In Southwest Louisiana where it is regular, the Hudsonian Godwit is uncommon to common in short-grass marsh, especially in the rice fields south of Rayne, Jennings, and Crowley. It is almost unknown there in fall. In Southeast Louisiana, where it is much rarer at any season, the seasonal distribution is less clear; but the statistics are poor, there being only six records, which, somewhat surprisingly, are all inland records. In short, one would probably expect to find the Hudsonian Godwit, known in southwest Louisiana as "Ring-tailed Marlin," in spring. The records are (all but the last from New Orleans): Sep. 6, 1875 (GK--collected); Sep. 27, 1895 (GK--collected); Apr. 13, 1978 (JR); May 4, 1978 (NN--14); May 23, 1979 (JR,m.ob.); Oct. 1-9, 1983 at the Bonnet Carre Spillway (MW,MA). MARBLED GODWIT (Limosa fedoa) Common or uncommon migrant, uncommon to rare in winter, casual in summer on barrier islands; strictly coastal. The Marbled Godwit can be found near the coast (especially Fourchon Rd, and Fourchon Beach) almost anytime from mid-July through May, in numbers which range from one or two in mid-winter to 75-100 during migration periods, especially spring. Closer scrutiny of its temporal distribution may show that migrating Marbled Godwits begin arriving in late February (exemplified by a Feb. 26, 1961 record on North Is. (LEW,SGC--19) and 104 on Fourchon Rd. on Mar. 3, 1985 (RDP,MM,NN), even though in some years none are seen before April 1. Similarly, while fall migrants may pass through between mid-July and early October, godwits can often be found into November, and have been reported on the Grand Isle CBC (Jan. 2, 1984 --2; Dec. 30, 1984--17). There are at least six June records, all but two from the islands, the earliest being June 11, 1971 on North Is. (RDP,RJN,MM); on June 19-21, 1973 a total of 20 were seen on the Chandeleurs (RJN, et al). Records from Fourchon Rd. on June 20, 1982 (RDP,JR,MM,DM--8) and June 21, 1987 (RDP--10) are the only mainland "summer" records. With the caveats implied above, the expected dates of occurrence in spring are: spring arrival, March 1-April 1, departure, May 1; in fall, July 15-Oct. 1. Extreme spring dates are Feb. 26, 1961 (LEW,SGC) and May 31, 1950 (DRB), both from North Is., while the fall extremes are July 8, 1990 at Grand Isle (RDP,DM,GC--16) and Nov. 19, 1978 on E. Timbalier Is (NN,MM,AS,RDP--50) and Nov. 19, 1981 at New Orleans (DM- -3). RUDDY TURNSTONE (Arenaria interpres) Common winter resident on the gulf beach. With the Sanderling, the Ruddy Turnstone is the typical shorebird of the immediate gulf beach. Inland occurrences are quite unusual, but there are records during migration from the Bonnet Carre Spillway and the Lake Pontchartrain seawall. Indeed Reinoehl found as many as 30 on the lakefront (May 18, 1979). Although the turnstone will not ordinarily be found in Southeast Louisiana in June and July, there are at least four June records. The mid to late June ("summer") records are: June 28, 1967 at North Is. (SAG,RDP, et al); and June 20, 1982, (JR,MM,RDP,DM), June 17, 1984 (RDP,DM-- 10), and June 23, 1991 (RDP--24), all on Fourchon Beach, Lafourche Par. Expected dates of occurrence are August 15 to June 1, with extreme dates being July 31, 1969 on North Is. (RDP,RJN) and June 12, 1971 on Chandeleur Is. (RDP,RJN,MM). RED KNOT (Calidris canutus) Uncommon to common migrant on the gulf beach; uncommon to scarce winter visitor. Although the Red Knot is rarely seen away from the gulf beach, it will be found on mudflatts near the beach at the height of migration. Winter occurrences are erratic, and it may take the coverage of a Christmas Count to turn up knots, but they should nonetheless be regarded as somewhat regular in winter. Their gregarious habits--they are almost invariably found in flocks, of 15-100 individuals--contribute to their "spotty" distribution. Red Knots are recognized by their plump appearance, the short to medium length bill, the wing strip, and their flocking habits. Although they are usually gray, many will be molting into alternate plumage in late spring, and a few will have retained it as they move south. As is true with other species which may be present on the gulf beach during the breeding season, birds present in June will be in basic plumage. There are at least five records from mid to late June, so that one could hope to find a knot at Grand Isle or Fourchon beach, or on the islands, in any month. The only inland records other than from the Bonnet Carre Spillway are from New Orleans: Oct. 31, 1979 (MB), and Nov. 17-24, 1991 at New Orleans (DM, et al). Two spillway records at hand are Sep. 6, 1974 (MW) and Nov. 10, 1979 (MW The "summer" records are (all but the first from Fourchon beach): June 25-27, 1967 on Curlew Is. (SAG, RDP, et al); June 20, 1982 (MM,DM,JR,RDP), June 19, 1983 (RDP,DM,JN), June 27, 1985 (AS,GS), and June 21, 1987 (RDP--105). Expected dates of occurrence (somewhat uncertain because of the June records listed above) are July 20 to June 1; extreme dates are July 17, 1977 in Lafourche Parish (RDP,MM,NN) and June 12, 1971 on the Chandeleur Is. (MM,RJN,RDP). SANDERLING (Calidris alba) Very common winter resident on gulf beaches The Sanderling is the typical shorebird of the gulf beach from August through at least May, often feeding actively at the edge of the surf. Although in late April and May some individuals will be in alternate (breeding) plumage, most Sanderlings, at any season, will be in immature or basic plumages. In migration Sanderlings are sometimes found on the Lake Pontchartrain seawall, with a maximum of 8 on May 27, 1978 (JR). During 1977-80 Reinoehl found Sanderlings on the lakefront in the periods Apr. 25-May 29 and Aug. 11-Oct. 18, which gives one an idea of when they migrate. The numerous June records make it difficult to be very definite about arrival and departure dates in fall and spring: June 27, 1976 on Curlew Is. (RDP,LO'm,NN--100), June 20, 1982, (JR,MM,DM,RDP), June 19, 1983 (JN,DM,RDP), June 17, 1984 (DM,RDP), and June 23, 1991 (RDP--156) all on Fourchon Beach, Lafourche Par. Approximate dates of occurrence are August 1 to June 1. SEMIPALMATED SANDPIPER (Calidris pusilla) Regular spring and fall migrant, sometimes common Since the paper of Allan Phillips pointing out that there was no specimen evidence of the occurrence of this species on the gulf coast in winter (American Birds 29: 799 (1975), there have been no credible sight records between November and March. Clearly the Semipalmated Sandpiper is a regular migrant from August to October and March through May, though more information is needed to define the migration periods more precisely. On May 28, 1991 in the vicinity of Grand Isle, almost all peeps were Semipalmated. Occasional winter records may occur, and indeed there are records for Southeast Louisiana on Nov. 23 and 28, Dec. 20 and 28, and Feb. 4 and 7 which this writer finds no specific reason to question. Yet even these should be regarded with caution since at the time Semipalmated Sandpipers were considered regular througout the winter. Any "peep" suspected of belonging to this species, between November and March, should be carefully scrutinized, and every attempt should be made to obtain definitive photographs or to induce the bird to call. Oberholser reported the species as "abundant" in January and December 1932, including specific records from Main Pass on Dec. 19 (300) and Dec. 23 (1400). These records are, of course, open to question. The Semipalmated Sandpiper is smaller and typically grayer than the Western, it has a "dark-eyed" look, its bill is more nearly of uniform thickness than that of the Western, and its call is a "cherk" or "chrrup" or "kriip." It is less likely to be found on the front beach than Western Sandpiper. Expected dates of occurrence are March 10 to June 5 and July 25 to October 15, with some uncertainty. Extreme dates in spring are Mar. 5, 1961 (SAG) and June 13, 1935 (TDB--coll), both at New Orleans; the fall extremes are July 8, 1956 at New Orleans (SAG) and Oct. 28, 1935 at Grand Isle (GHL--coll.). Peak abundance of Semipalmated Sandpipers comes fairly late in spring migration, perhaps late April. A June 17, 1984 record from Fourchon Rd. (RDP,DM--12) is arbitrarily regarded as a "summer" or "out of season" occurrence. This species closely resembles Little Stint, which has not been recorded on the gulf coast, even to the extent of having a rather similar call, but see Viet and Jonsson (1984) or Colston and Burton (1988). WESTERN SANDPIPER (Calidris mauri) Common to adundant winter resident Western Sandpipers can usually be identified by their rather long black bill which sometimes perceptibly droops at the tip, and by the rusty crown, auriculars, and scapulars, with traces of the latter remaining in winter. There is, however, an overlap between short-billed male Western Sanpipers and long-billed female Semipalmated Sandpipers. A short bill, alone, is not sufficient to support an identification as Semipalmated; bill shape (slightly drooping, with a hint of a bulbous tip) is crucial, and vocalization is desirable. Long-billed Western Sandpipers, however, cause no problem, and more often than not the flocks are homogeneous, so that a suspected Semipalmated in a large flock of Westerns will often be found to be a short-billed Western when closely examined.Western's have a "jeet" call which in no way resembles Semipalmated. An important article on the previous species, this one, and the Least Sandpiper, plus Rufour- necked , Little, and Temmincks's Stints is Veit and Jonsson (1984). See also Colston and Burton (1988). Maximum number recorded is 1500 at Fourchon Beach on April 9, 1994 (MM,DM,RDP,JR) . Expected dates are July 20 to June 1, while extreme dates of occurrence are July 7, 1991 on Fourchon Beach (RSB,GW--7) [and Sep. 8, 1981 at Grand Isle (JR,MB)] and June 4, 1935 at New Orleans (TDB--coll). There are at least two out of season records: June 20, 1982 (MM,DM,JR,RDP) and June 19, 1983 (RDP,DM,JN), both on Fourchon Rd. in Lafourche Parish. LEAST SANDPIPER (Calidris minutilla) Very common winter resident, mostly coastwise Although the Least Sandpiper is common on beaches and mudflats from July through early June, its numbers rarely equal the concentrations of Western Sandpipers (and sometimes Semipalmated as well) during their peak migrations. Although it is usually seen at or near the coast, that is primarily a reflection of the scarcity of shorebird accessible shorebird habitat away from the coast. It is sometimes seen on the Lake Pontchartrain seawall in New Orleans during migration, on the campuses of UNO after rains, and on US 11 when water is low. To a much greater extent than the other "peeps", the Least Sandpiper shows a fondness for feeding on rock jetties and seawalls. The call, a distinct "kreep", is the most easily learned of the "peeps." This, along with yellow legs, brownish coloration of its upperparts, and heavy pectoral streaking, makes it easy to identify. A Temmink's Stint might well be written off as a Least, because of the yellow legs, but its cricket-like call is distinctive. Expected dates for the Least Sandpiper are July 20 to approximately June 1; extreme dates of occurrence are July 9, 1979 at (FB) and June 7, 1933 (HCO--coll.), both at Grand Isle. WHITE-RUMPED SANDPIPER (Calidris fuscicolis) Uncommon to quite common spring migrant, primarily in May The White-rumped Sandpiper often is the most common small shorebird in mid to late May, but is absent otherwise. Its fall migration routes carry it way fromn the region. It, like the next species is quite long-winged. It will stand out on a mud-flat in late spring by virtue of being somewhat larger than the usual peeps, because of its gray plumage with very distinct breast markings, and relatively heavy black bill. The call is a distinctive "squeaky tzeet", to adopt Johnsgaard's (1981) description. Maximum numbers: 400 at Grand Isle on May 18, 1981 (NN,DM). Expected dates of occurrence are May 1 to June 1; extreme dates: Apr. 20, 1986 at Grand Isle (MM,RDP) and June 11, 1981 at New Orleans (JR). There are only two fall records, Aug. 13, 1968 (JK) and Sept. 2 and 6 (JR), all from New Orleans. There are also wo "summer" records: June 20, 1982 on Fourchon Rd. (MM,JR,DM,RDP) and July 9?, 1989 on Curlew Is. (RDP). BAIRD'S SANDPIPER (Calidris bairdii) Rare or occasional migrant Baird's Sandpiper is found most frequently on damp short-grass fields but occurs sparingly on mudflats as well. In part because it is less frequently encoutered than the other peeps, Baird's is perhaps the most frequently mis-identified, and certainly poses a non-trivial identification problem. Baird's is very long-winged, awareness of which fact can forestall most of these identification difficulties. Baird's is buffy on the breast, like a Least Sandpiper, but larger, longer billed, is dark-legged, has a pale face, and its back is scaly or blotchy. It has a rather horizontal carriage and a tail with very little white on the sides. The call resembles that of the Least, but is more nearly a "kriip." Expected dates of occurrence are somewhat uncertain, but generally April 15 to May 20 in spring and mid-July through September. Extreme dates in fall are Mar. 20, 1983 (DM) and May 28, 1966 (JK--12), both at New Orleans, and in fall, July 10, 1970 at the Rigolets (JK,WW,LW) and Oct. 3, 1959 at Grand Isle (LCB,DGB,SLW,BLM). PECTORAL SANDPIPER (Calidris melanotos) Common spring and fall migrant The Pectoral Sandpiper is most common on the same soggy short-grass fields which are favored by Baird's and Buff-breasted Sandpipers, but will not infrequently be found in shallow marshy situations as well. Although it is not readily confused with any common shorebird, both its close relative the Sharp-tailed Sandpiper, which has not been recorded in Louisiana, and the reve, or female Ruff, can resemble this species. The call of the Pectoral Sandpiper is a "prrp" or "pritt," quite different from the two-note "krip- krip" call of the Sharp-tailed (Johnsgaard, 1981). The breast of the Sharp-tailed has no abrupt cutoff, forming a pectoral band, but fades into the lower breast. See British Birds 73: 33-345, for identification details. Expected dates of occurrence in spring are March 10 to May 10; in fall August 1 to November 1. Extreme dates in spring are Mar. 4, 1979 (JR) and May 23, 1979 (JR), both at New Orleans. Fall extremes are July 11, 1981 at New Orleans and Nov. 14, 1972. There are two winter records....... and one "summer" record: June 29, 1961 at New Orleans (SAG). PURPLE SANDPIPER (Calidris maritima) Accidental in Winter The Purple Sandpiper is known for its predilection for rock jetties and "rip-rap" throughout its range. Although it is common on the eastern seaboard, and though there have been a number of records for coastal Mississippi (perhaps of the same individuals?), there is a single record of this species for Southeast Louisiana, of a bird found on April 3, 1994 (CL) at the west end of Grand Isle, and which remained until....[4/20] Purple Sandpipers have occurred on at least two previous occasions in Sw. Lousiana. DUNLIN (Calidris alpina) Common to very common winter resident On a typical mudflat in Southeast Louisiana, the Dunlin may outnumber all other shorebird species combined, although in recent years its numbers seem to have declined. Although it is distinctly larger than the three species of small peeps with which is often found , it may sometimes be confused with the Western Sandpiper if no size comparison is possible. It has a much longer bill than the Western and the bill droops quite clearly. Its call is also quite different, resembling that of the Least Sandpiper. Maximum number recorded is 2500 on Fourchon Beach and Grand Isle, April 9, 1994 (MM,DM,RDP,JR). Expected dates of winterring are September 10 to May 25; extreme dates of occurrence are Aug. 10, 1980 at Grand Isle (MM,NN,DM) and June 11, 1971 on North Is. (RDP,MM,NN). There are at least two out-of -season records: June 28, 1967 on North Is. (SAG,RDP, et al) and July 10, 1970 at the Rigolets (JK,WW,LW)....1992 at Grand Isle (AS,GS) CURLEW SANDPIPER (Calidris ferruginea) Accidental vagrant There are seven? records for Louisiana of Curlew Sandpiper, including one from Southeast Louisiana, on August 22, 1975 on Fourchon Road in Lafourche Parish (MM,NN). Although the Curlew Sandpiper is a close relative of the Dunlin, it is often described as more strongly resembling a Stilt Sandpiper , also a member of the genus Calidris . Compared to the Dunlin, it has a longer, slightly more decurved bill, and a white rump. STILT SANDPIPER (Calidris himantopus) Common to sometimes very common migrant The Stilt Sandpiper, which similar in size to, and superficially resembles both Lesser Yellowlegs and the dowitchers, is often abundant in migration; the maximum recorded is 1000+ on Fourchon Road on April 30, 1984 (DM). In spring the rusty head markings are distinctive, as are the barred underparts. The bill, which is considerably longer than that of a yellowlegs, is shorter than that of the Short-billed Dowitcher and usually has a pronounced droop. The Stilt Sandpiper has more of an eyeline than the Lesser Yellowlegs, and has greenish legs and a white rump. It often feeds "waist-deep" in water, and gives a "querp" call and a social chatter. Expected dates in spring are March 25 to May 10 and in fall, July 25 to about October 15. Extreme dates of spring occurrence are Mar. 18, 1984 on Fourchon Rd. (DM,RDP) and May 22, 1971 at Grand Isle, and fall extremes are July 16, 1989 on Fourchon Rd (MM,NN,RDP) and Nov. 10, 1979 at Grand Isle. Although there are but three winter records, Feb. 11, 1975 at Grand Isle (RJN,BC), Dec. 1, 1991 in Lafourche Parish (DM,GG,RDP--10), and Dec. 29, 1991 at Venice (DM), recent studies in the rice fields of southwest Louisiana have shown the Stilt Sandpiper to be a rather regular wintering species (J. La. Ornith. 1: 35 (1991)), which can sometimes be abundant. BUFF-BREASTED SANDPIPER (Tryngites subruficollis) Uncommon migrant The Buff-breasted Sandpiper is found almost exclusively on the same short-grass fields often favored by Lesser Golden Plovers and Upland Sandpipers (which, however, tolerate somewhat higher grass). In this area, this habitat can be found at Lakefront Airport, the campuses of UNO, the Exxon field on Grand Isle, etc. Very occasionally Buff-breasted Sandpipers are seen on a coastal mudflat or beach. Although this species is rarely common, a maximum of 115 were seen at New Orleans on Sep. 20, 1980 (JR). Expected dates in spring migration are April 5 to May 1; in fall they are August 10 to September 25. Extreme dates are spring: Mar. 14, 1978 (JR) and May 16, 1980 (JR); fall: July 24, 1982 (MM) and Oct. 25, 1970 (RDP)--all from New Orleans. RUFF (Philomachus pugnax) Accidental There are two records of the Ruff from Southeast Louisiana, both from the main campus of the University of New Orleans: August 12-20, 1978 (MB, m.ob.), of which a photograph appeared in the Aug. 20 New Orleans Times-Picayune (ph-Fred Barry), and August 12, 1980 (NN, et al). Both records have been ratified by the LOS Bird Records Committee. The 1978 record was the second report for Louisiana and the first documented occurrence. Although there have been no local records since 1980, there have been a number in southwest Louisiana, especially in the rice fields of soutwest- central Louisiana. The Ruff is likely to occur only in basic (non-breeding) plumage. It has a small head, thick neck, a bill which is pale at the base, and has white at the sides of the tail which is often seen as two "oval" patches. Often it has considerable black blotching below. The female ("Reeve") is about the size of a Lesser Yellowlegs, while the male is definitely larger. The Reeve could be confused with a Pectoral Sandpiper, although it lacks the pectoral band. SHORT-BILLED DOWITCHER (Limnodramus griseus) Abundant migrant, common winter resident, mostly on or near the coast. Generally the Short-billed Dowitcher is the commoner of the two species of dowitchers in winter; it is apparently more likely to be found in saline (beach) or estuarine situations than its congener. Identification by plumage is certainly possible (see, for example, Kaufman's Advanced Birding), but by far the safest approach is to flush any bird in question and, in the case of this species, to listen for the distinct, somewhat mellow, "tu-tu-tu.." call. Frequently a flock will not call, whatever the provocation, and then one will have to rely on plumage characteristics, if a close look is possible. As many as 1000 have been recorded at one time: April 9, 1994 (MM,DM,RDP,JR). According to Jack Reinoehl, the temporal distribution along the New Orleans lakefrton in migration during 1977-80 was April 3-May 19 and July 23-September 20. On the Atlantic and Pacific coasts this species arrives earlier than its cousin in fall by 10- 14 days; in Southeast Louisiana, for example, all dowitchers recorded in fall migration in 1990 before July 22 were Short-billed. There are anomalous late spring/summer/early fall records of Limnodramus sp. from near Lonesome Island on June 26, 1981 (RDP) and Grand Island (Half Moon Island), June 13, 1982 (MM,DM,LO'M,RDP). Other records from this intermediate period, specifically for this species, are July 8, 1981 at Grand Isle (JR,MB) and four June records from Fourchon Rd., Lafourche Par: June 20, 1982 (RDP,DM,JR,MM), June 19, 1983 (RDP,DM,JN), June 17, 1984 (RDP,DM--75), and June 27, 1985 (GS,AS). Expected dates are August 1 to (May 25), with extreme dates of occurrence being June 11, in 1930 (North Is., fide HCO) and in 1984 (Grassy Is., RDP,.NN,DM, LO'M). The migration peaks are broadly mid-March to the end of May and late July into October. The June 11 dates are somewhat arbitrary, given the number of late June and early July records. LONG-BILLED DOWITCHER (Limnodramus scolopaceus) Common migrant, regular to common winter resident Although definitive identification is best made by call--in this case the sharp "keek" call of the Long-billed Dowitcher, this species can usually be identified in breeding plumage by the fact that the red of the underparts extends well onto the lower belly, whereas the Short-billed Dowitcher has a white belly of greater or lesser extent. Other characteristics are mostly unreliable, except the tail pattern, which can be used in any plumage. The Short-billed Dowitcher may show a tail pattern consisting of widely spaced-thin bars, when seen at close range; the present species shows thick black bars separated by thin whie bars (not all individuals are distinguishable). See Kaufman for details. Expected dates are August 1 to June 5 and extreme dates of occurrence are July 11, 1975 and June 6, 1918 on the Chandeleur Islands (AMB). COMMON SNIPE (Gallinago gallinago) Fairly common in winter. The Common Snipe is typically found in wet fields, often in quite large numbers. Though certainly not as common as they once were Common Snipes have increased somewhat on recent New Orleans Christmas Counts, after a minimum in the early 1970's. Expected dates of occurrence are September 20 to April 20, while extreme dates are Aug. 5, 1966 at (JK) and May 7, 1978 (JR), both at New Orleans. AMERICAN WOODCOCK (Philohela minor) Uncommon winter resident. Information on the nesting of the woodcock in Southeast Louisiana is quite sketchy, being based on a single record of early nesting activity on Jan. 29, 1890 at Covington (GEB)--Beyer's dog supposedly retrieved a young bird, and three summer records: Aug. 9, 1958 at Reserve (DW--coll.), June 12, 1977 in the Honey Island swamp (LO'M, RDP), and June 12, 1988 at Franklinton (NN). It is thus ordinarily encountered as a winter resident, typically in damp or swampy woodlands. Expected date of arrival is somewhat difficult to specify, since although there are occasional late August records, the species is rarely encountered before about November 20. Furthermore, the late expected date of February 15, which reflects the records at hands, may be unrealistic and simply be due to selective factors, namely the fact that after mid-February, observers tend to focus on coastal birding. Extreme dates are Aug. 25, 1969 at Grand Isle (RJN) and, in spring, April 17, 1929 at Grand Isle (fide HCO) and April 17, 1959 at Covington (JBK), WILSON'S PHALAROPE (Phalaropus tricolor) Uncommon migrant, significantly more common in fall than spring This is the common phalarope in Louisiana, especially in fall when it may be common near or on the coast. It is easily distinguished from its relatives, the Red-necked and Red Phalaropes, by its white tail and strong wing stripe. Most birders know of the phalaropes' prediliction to engage in a circular or spinning feeding behavior and of the fact that the females are more brightly colored than the males. Although expected dates are somewhat uncertain, they can be taken to be approximately August 15 to September 25 in fall and May 1 to May 15 in spring, although there are only about a dozen spring records. Extreme datres in fall are July 17, 1988 at ....(MM) and Oct. 22, 1978 at Grand Isle (SAG,MEL); in spring the extremes are April 9, 1994 (MM,DM,RDP,JR) and May 18, 1981 (NN,DM), both on Fourchon Road in Lafourche Parish near Grand Isle. The single winter record was the first for Louisiana: Feb. 7, 1982 on Fourchon Road (MM,DM,LO'M,RDP,SN,JR). RED-NECKED PHALAROPE )Phalaropus lobatus) Casual to accidental fall visitor The Red-necked Phalarope is one of the two species of phalaropes which are somewhat to strongly pelagic in winter, the other being the next species. Although both may winter in the gulf off Lousiana--especially the Red Phalarope, there are no records to support this conjecture (see, however, records off Alabama). The five records of this species are all from Fourchon Road in Lafourche Parish, and seem to indicate that the most likely time to find Red-necked Phalaropes is in late September. This species can be told from the next, once Wilson's is eliminated, by the long, fine, bill and streaked back and wing coverts; the crown is dark as well. The Red Phalarope has a stocky bill and a gray back. The records are Sept. 18-25, 1976 (RH,RJS), May 22, 1977 (RJN), Sep. 20, 1981 (JK,LH), SEp. 12-18, 1982 (MM,NN,NLN,TD), and Sep. 3, 1989 (RDP....). RED PHALAROPE (Phalaropus fulicaria) Accidental in fall or winter; possibly wintering on open water of gulf There is but one record of this species for Southeast Louisiana, of one found on Fourchon Road during the fall of 1989, present from........(CL,.....). For the possibility of wintering on the gulf, see Duncan and Havard, and Clapp, et al. Suborder Lari FAMILY Laridae SKUAS, GULLS, AND TERNS POMARINE JAEGER (Stercorarius pomarinus) Rare pelagic migrant, strictly offshore. Possible present in winter as well. There are but four records of this jaeger, all from April or May and all off the mouth of the Mississippi River where the continental shelf is reached only a few miles from shore. This is consistent with the data presented in Williams (1965), which indicate that April and November have produced the greatest number of jaeger records along the northern gulf coast. Until recently, the Pomarine Jaeger was thought to be much less common than then the Parasitic, especially near shore, but recent observations in Southwest Louisiana have shown that not to be true, in that area at least. Winter records in Sw. Louisiana, e.g., the Sabine CBC, have become regular. See Duncan and Havard (1980) and Rowlett (1980) for additional information. Most records of jaegers in Louisiana and the nearby gulf coast have been of immature birds, whose identification is much more difficult than is generally believed. The Pomarine is approximately the size of a Ring-billed Gull, bulky-looking, and with a somewhat labored flight, but these are mostly relative characters which can be appreciated only if one knows all the jaegers well. The Pomarine Jaeger has the most extensive white in the primary feathers of the jaegers. See Kaufman (1990) and Harrison (1983) for details on jaeger identification. The records are: May 19, 1971 20 miles off South Pass (RJN), April 4, 1985, 20 miles SSE of Southwest Pass (MM--2), May 12, 1985, 20 miles SSE of Southwest Pass, and May 28, 1990, 17 miles SSW of South Pass (SWC,DD,MM?,DM,RDP--coll.). Two Pomarine Jaegers were reported in Jefferson Parish on Aug. 27, 1992 (PY), in the wake of Hurricane Andrew and another was seen the next day (DM). PARASITIC JAEGER (Stercorarius parasiticus) Uncommon to rare transient offshore, occasional to accidental in winter As indicated above, this has generally been thought, until recently, to be the commonest of the jaegers on the northern gulf coast. This supposition may have resulted in hasty identification of some birds. Most individuals seen have been immatures (since the jaegers take up to four years to reach maturity) and pose a difficult identification problem. Even in the case of adults some care is necessary especially with respect to the tail feathers, the tips of which are frequently broken. See Finch, et al (1978), Harrison (1983), or Kaufman (1990) for identification details. The records are distributed as follows: January (1), February (1), March (1), May (2), June (1), July (2), and September (1), making it somewhat difficult to say when one would be most likely to find Parasitic Jaegers along the Louisiana coast, although spring and fall are generally considered to offer better chances. In spite of this fact, winter records are regular off Cameron, in southwest Louisiana, and summer records off the mouth of the Mississippi River are not infrequent. One might examine the flocks of gulls and terms which follows shrimp and other fishing boats for an occasional jaeger. Although few of the records given below have been acted on by the Louisiana Bird Records Committee, the July 13, 1981 record has actually been rejected because of the problem of indentification of immature birds. Hurricane Andrew, which struck the Southeast Louisiana coast on Aug. 26, 1993 spawned several records of unidentified jaegers, many of which were probably of this species. The nine records of this species, prior to Andrew, are as follows: March 1, 1948, off the mouth of the Mississippi River; June 4, 1958, 45 miles SSW of Grand Isle (MM,BMM); September 12, 1961 at New Orleans (SAG), in the wake of Hurricane Carla; February 6, 1971 off Empire (RJN); May 3, 1972, 25 miles off South Pass (RJN); July 13, 1981, 5 miles off South Pass (NN,RDP); July 20, 1981, 20 miles off South Pass (AS); May 6, 1985, 20 miles SSE of South Pass (MM), and January 4, 1986 at Fourchon Beach (DM,RDP,JR,PM). This latter record was the only one of a jaeger from shore in Southeast Louisiana prior to Hurricane Andrew, although there are several such records for Cameron Parish, including all three species. LONG-TAILED JAEGER (Stercorarius longicaudus) Accidental on the gulf; a single record There is one record of this jaeger , of a bird collected approximately 17 miles SSW of South Pass on May 28, 1990 (DLD,SWC,DM,MM?,RDP). This record, the second for Louisiana, points up the need for cautious identification of immature jaegers, since all three may occur on the gulf anytime between spring and fall. [SKUA (Catharacta sp.)] HYPOTHETICAL A bird identified as a skua was seen near North Island in the Chandeleurs on June 7, 1968 by Jake Valentine and Marshall Eyster. LAUGHING GULL (Larus atricilla) Abundant resident The Laughing Gull is common throughout the year and can always be found along the coast or on Lake Pontchartrain. It nests in large numbers on the barrier islands off the delta, especially in the Chandeleurs, and Curlew Island in particular. In 1976 Portnoy found 15 colonies in Southeast Louisiana containing 19,000 breeing adults, with a maximum size of 5400. As many as 11,000 breeding pairs have been counted on North Island. Numbers recorded on New Orleans Christmas Counts have undergone a large increase (factor of 5?) since about 1965. FRANKLIN'S GULL (Larus pipixcan) Uncommon to rare migrant in fall, rare to casual in spring Although this species is more of less regular in migration in Cameron Parish in Southwest Louisiana, it is rarely encountered in Southeast Louisiana. Most recent records have been from the New Orleans lakefront, primarily because of the good coverage there. Identification in other than adult plumage requires some care, and mid-winter records are always suspect. The photograph of the first winter bird in Farrand (1983) gives a good idea of what the non-breeding Franklin's Gull looks like, with a half-hood and prominant white eye crescents. The paucity of spring records makes assigning expected dates impossible, and indeed there are only two records available to the author, April 12, 1961 at New Orleans (SAG) and April 16, 1980 near Golden Meadow (MM,JW). In fall the expected dates are October 15 to November 10, with extremes of Sept. 12-21, 1974 at the Bonnet Carre Spillway (RJS) and Nov. 16, 1991 at New Orleans (MM,DM). The winter records are January 26, 1932 at Larose (HCO--2), December 24, 1932 at Bayou des Allemandes (HCO), Dec. 3 (AS,GS) and Dec. 4, 1989-...(RDP,DM) at New Orlean--two different birds; Dec. 26, 1993 (......). Oberholser listed six winter records for Louisiana, five of them representing his only observations of Franklin's Gulls in the state. Some scepticism seems appropriate in evaluating those records. BONAPARTE'S GULL (Larus philadephia) Common winter resident Bonaparte's Gulls can usually be found along the south shore of Lake Pontchartrain in winter, often near Seabrook Bridge. By April some Bonaparte's Gulls will have gained the black hood. One is reminded that a good place to look for the rare Little Gull is with flocks of Bonaparte's Gull. Expected dates of occurrence are November 15 to April 5; extreme dates are Sep. 24, 1956 at New Orleans (BMM,CLE,HAJE) and May 29, 1988 (RDP). There are two "summer" records: June 6, 1933 on Breton Island (fide HCO) and ...... on Curlew Island (LO'M). RING-BILLED GULL (Larus delawarensis) Abundant winter resident, uncommon to rare in summer The Ring-billed Gull is common on Lake Pontchartrain and along the coast, and is abundant at sanitary landfills. Large aggregations of Ring-billed Gulls will often be found on shopping center parking lots or on low, wet grassy areas, as, for example, in Lafreniere Park in Metairie. Indeed any such collection of gulls is guaranteed to be nearly 100% of this species; it is normally present from October into April. On New Orleans Christmas Counts, the maximum number is 98,211 in 1992. Both this and the next species have shown huge increases on CBC's since the early 1970's, perhaps because of better coverage of garbage dumps. In winter, the birds mainly spend the night on the lake (perhaps the river?) and feed in the dumps. A few Ring-billed Gulls can usually be found throughout the summer , mostly on the coast. HERRING GULL (Larus argentatus) Abundant winter resident Like the Ring-billed Gull, the Herring Gull is abundant in winter at local garbage dumps, but can be found on the New Orleans lakefront in considerable numbers as well, especially near the South Harbor Marina. The New Orleans Christmas Count maximum is 48,261 individuals, set in 1992. While all of the early writers report that the Herring Gull was most abundant on the Mississippi River at New Orleans, that is not now the case. The reason may be the presence of garbage dumps which they now so strongly favor and the lack of fishing vessels using the New Orleans port. From October into April the Herring Gull is common to abundant near open water, and there are a few records every summer. Most birds, in winter or summer, are in immature plumage, not surprising for a "four-year" gull, but in fact the majority are first- year birds. THAYER'S GULL (Larus thayeri) Rare winter resident Because of the difficulty in identifing Thayer's Gull, it is not clear how regular is its occurrence in Southeast Louisiana. The fact that five or more were seen in New Orleans dumps in late winter of 1982, when they were first discovered, show that in some winters, at least, they are present in small numbers. Although the 10 records cannot be assumed to accurately reflect either Thayer's Gull numbers or their temporal distribution, time will clarify the issue. The distribution of records, with three in 1982, two in 1984, and five between 1987 and 1991, in spite of considerable searching, indicates that their occurrence may be somewhat sporadic. All but two records (May, 1984 and Feb. 26, 1987) have been of first year birds, and the former record, though supported by such experts as California's Guy McCaskie, has been rejected by the LBRC. Adult birds, which will rarely be seen here given the local rarity of the species and the fact that it takes four years to reach maturity, have a dark eye, but one must be careful in using that character since Herring Gull can appear to have a dark eye if not seen well. Thayer's Gull has a noticeably rounded head and a relatively slender bill which in first winter plumage is all or mostly black. The primary and secondar feathers contrast very slightly if at all with the coverts and the overall plumage is typically a very pale buffy brown. Seen from below, the primary feathers are fully transluscent in contrast to the Herring Gull, in which the outermost primaries are not. The primaries have crescent- shaped barring on them and often there is a dark smudge around the eye. Good sources of information on identification are Gosselin and David (1975), Lehman (1980), and Kaufman (1990); see also the photograph in American Birds 39: 183 (1985). In theory, confusion could result not only from a petit female first year Herring Gull, but from an Iceland Gull or Glaucous-winged Gull, neither of which have been recorded even near Lousiana. The ten records, which span the period December 23 to March 29 (or later?) are: February 14, 1982 at New Orleans (MM--photo,DM,NN); February 28, 1982 at New Orleans (SWC,MR,DM,MM,RDP--3?, one collected); March 14, 1982 at New Orleans (SWC,MR,VR,DM,MM,RDP--2?, one collected); May 9-13, 1985 on Fourchon Beach (NLN,BCV,DM,RDP--photo; rejected by LBRC); December 23, 1984 at New Orleans (DM,JH); February 26, 1987 (SWC,DLD,AS,GS) at Venice; March 29, 1987 at New Orleans (RDP); ...1988 CBC...etc DM,JH Dec. 30, 1989 (SWC,DLD) in Arabi; and February 24, 1991 at New Orleans (PL,SF,AS,GS).... LESSER BLACK-BACKED GULL (Larus fuscus) Rare winter visitor One of the more remarkable examples of changing distribution or abundance among the birds which occur in Southeast Louisiana is that of the Lesser Black-backed Gull. Not recorded until February 1982, there are now at least 21 records, from either New Orleans (lakefront or dumps) or the Lafourche--Grand Isle vicinity. Most of these records have been of adult birds, with perhaps one first-winter record, one or two second- winter record, and one thir-year sub-adult. There are records for every month, distributed as follows: June (2), July (1), August (1), September (2), October (1), November (2), December (1), January (1), February (3), March (2), April (1), May (1). In recent years this species has been found on the beaches of Cameron Parish in every September. Lesser Black-backed Gull is the most likely of the dark-backed gulls to be seen in Southeast Louisiana, and is characterized by its moderate size (size of Herring Gull or smaller), yellow legs, charcoal rather than black mantle, and red orbital ring. The 20 records at hand are as follows: Feb. 14-28, 1982 at New Orleans (DM,m.ob.--photos MM,RDP), the first record for Louisiana; Mar. 11-Apr. 22, 1984 at Fourchon Beach (DM,NN,m.ob.--photos RDP--see AB.., a third winter bird; Feb. 6, 1987 at New Orleans (RDP,NN); Feb. 27, 1987 (DM,GS--same as previous?); March 22, 1987 at New Orleans (RDP); June 21, 1987 on Fourchon Beach (RDP); Jan. 9, 1988 at New Orleans...(second winter?); an adult Feb. 6, 1988 (NN,RDP); June 5?, 1988 on Curlew Island (TP--second year); Sep. 11-29, 1988 at Fourchon Beach (DM,GR,MM,NN,RDP); Oct. 8, 1988 on Fourchon Beach (DM,RDP); . Grand Isle; July 8, 1990 on Fourchon Beach (DM,RDP,GC); Aug. 26, 1990 ?; Nov. 11, 1990 ...(...-- photo;2); ....CBC... May 26, 1991 at Grand Isle (CS,PW,GC,DM,MM,RDP--first? summer); Nov. 16, 1991 at New Orleans (MM,DM--first year); St. Bernard Parish, on the New Orleans CBC on Dec. 21, 1991 (CM,DD,SWC--4); at the same dump on the 1992 New Orleans CBC on Dec. 26 (....--5) ; Jan. 3, 1993 at Venice (.....). CALIFORNIA GULL (Larus californicus) Occasional to accidental winter vagrant There are two records for Southeast Louisiana, of one seen briefly at the BFI (Crescent Acres) dump in Arabi on Feb. 18, 1989? (CM,SWC,DLD?), and another collected there on Dec. 26, 1992 (SWC,DLD....). For identification details, see Harrison (1983); briefly, however, the California Gull is intermediate in size between Ring-billed and Herring Gulls, has a rounded-looking head, and a relatively slight bill. In adult plumage, the mantle is distinctly darker than that of a Herring Gull, its legs are green to greenish-yellow, the eye is dark, and the bill usually has both black and red spots on the lower mandible. First year birds are more difficult, but have the same slight build as the adult, a pink bill with black tip (which Herring may show), pinkish legs, and a wing patter dominated by dark primaries and a dark secondary band. [KELP GULL (Larus dominicanus) ] HYPOTHETICAL If substantiated, the record of Kelp Gull along the Southeast Louisiana coast, primarily on Curlew Island, in the summers of 1989-93 would be one of the most remarkable of all Louisiana bird records. They were not known previously from the northern hemisphere. Two birds, first identified as Lesser Black-backed Gulls, were seen and photographed July 7-8, 1989 (LO'M, RDP). The birds were strongly paired. The following summer, on ....., two birds were again seen (LO'M--photos,JPG), and later that summer a single bird thought to be of this same species was seen in company with an adult Herring Gull and a juvenile gull (RM). From the behavior of the three birds, it was thought that the juvenile gull might have been the result of mating between the "Kelp" and Herring Gulls. In the summer of 1991, one Kelp Gull was seen, along with a first or second summer gull which may have been an immature Kelp Gull. Both the adult and the immature bird were well photographed (LO'M). The adult birds were Herring Gull sized, with very black mantles, a very massive bill, yellow feet, and a light eye with a red orbital ring. The initial identification of L. fuscus is ruled out by the build of the birds, the massive bill, and the mantle color (except for L. fusucs fuscus). Yellow-footed Gull, the only other possibility, is ruled out by the orbital ring color (Guy McCaskie, pers. comm.). During the summer of 1994, at least four adults were seen on Curlew I. on ..... (LO'M, SWC,DLD), along with several "intermediates", and another black-backed gull with yellow legs was seen at Baptiste Collette Bayou on Sept. ...., 1994 (Bob Russell). GLAUCOUS GULL (Larus hyperboreus) Casual winter visitor Prior to the winter of 1981-82, the Glaucous Gull was the only species of rare vagrant gull which had been recorded in Southeast Louisiana. There are now at least 16 records, distributed more or less evenly over the period 1961 to the present, although there has been only three records since 1985 and seven of the records occurred in the period 1982-85. All records, save one, have been of first year birds. The records are: March 4, 1961 on Lake Pontchartrain Causeway (SAG,MEL); Jan. 10, 1971 at New Orleans (RJN,RDP,HDP,PS..); Feb. 12-20, 1972 at Mandeville (HDP,ANR); Dec. 7-31 at New Orleans (JR,m.ob.); Jan. 23-Feb. 28, 1982 (SWC,VR,DM, RDP, m.ob.--coll); Feb.7, 1982 at Grand Isle (MM,DM,LO'M,RDP,SP,JR); Feb. 27, 1982 at New Orleans (SWC,MM,DM,RDP,MR--2?, one collected LSUMZ 1033495); winter 1981-82 Grand Isle/Grand Terre?; April 17-21, 1984 on Fourchon Beach (VR, et al, DM,RDP); Dec. 1, 1984 at New Orleans (GO,m.ob.,RDP--photos AB 39: 177 (1985),PW,MM); ..1985 (PW-- photo); ....Grand Isle (JH--photo); Dec. 8, 1991 at New Orleans (DM,NN--photos); Dec. 21, 1992 in St. Bernard Parish (CM,DD,SWC--photo); April 17, 1994 at Grand Isle (MM,NN, RDP,GG,PW,GS; photos). GREAT BLACK-BACKED GULL (Larus marinus) Rare winter visitor There are at least 19 records of this large dark-backed gull, including the first three records for Louisiana, all since the winter of 1981-82. Most of the records have been of adult or nearly adult birds, but there are records of at least two first year Great Black- backed Gulls. The records are: Nov. 14, 1981 at New Orleans (DM,JR,NN,RDP-- photos), the first record for Louisiana; Feb. 26, 1982 at New Orleans (MR,SC,MM,DM,RDP--first year); March 28, 1982 at New Orleans (MM--photos AB 36: 862 (1982),DM,m.ob., first year); Jan. 5, 1985, Fourchon (RJS,DM?); Aug.--Sep. 20, 1987 on Fourchon Beach (RDP,PW,GS,MM--photos RDP,MM,GS); Mar. 28, 1988 Fourchon (MM-photo?); Oct. 8, 1988 on Fourchon Beach (DM,RDP)?; Mar. 26, 1989 at Fourchon Beach (RDP,DM,LO'M--photo?) ; Nov. 19?, 1989 on Fourchon Beach (JH--photo?); Jan. 13, 1991 (DM,MM,NN,RDP) at Fourchon Beach; Oct. 27, 1991, Fourchon (RDP,NN); Dec. 1-7, 1991 Fourchon (DM,RDP,GG,AS,GS); Dec. 21, 1991 in St. Bernard Parish (CM,DD,SWC--photo); .... 1992, St. Bernard Parish (DM,JD); Jan. 30, 1994 on Fourchon Beach (NN,RDP...), a first year bird; May 27, 1994 at Grand Isle (NN,RDP), an adult (ph); a first year bird at Seabrook Bridge on L. Pontchartrain in July and August...., 1994 (DM, m.ob.).; an adult at Seabrook Bridge Dec. 4-?, 1994 (RDP, et al), and a first year bird on Fourchon Beach on March 4, 1995 (CS,PW--ph., vid.) The Great Black-backed Gull can be distinguished from Lesser Black-backed Gull in adult or sub-adult plumage by its pink rather than yellow legs, and its much darker mantle, its large size and massive head/bill. In addition, the orbital ring color is...., rather than red. See Grant.... One should, of course, always keep in mind Slaty-backed Gull, Yellow-footed Gull, and even Kelp Gull when examining dark-backed gulls. BLACK-LEGGED KITTIWAKE (Rissa tridactyla) Accidental Although there are well over a dozen records of Black-legged Kittiwakes for Louisiana, there are but two for Southeast Louisiana, all offshore. All records have been of immatures. The records are: Jan. 4, 1972, 20-30 miles off the Mississippi delta (RJN,HDP) and April 1, 1985, 5 miles south of Southwest Pass (MM). SABINE'S GULL (Xema sabini) Accidental vagrant There are two putative records of Sabine's Gull for southeastern Louisiana. The first was of a bird seen at Barataria Pass, at the east end of Grand Isle, on September 11, 1976 (RH,RJS); this record has been ratified by the LOS Bird Records Committee. The second record, of one in the summer on Curlew Island, on ...... (LO'M), has not been passed on by the BRC. There are also two records for coastal Mississippi. GULL-BILLED TERN (Sterna nilotica) Uncommon resident, nesting on barrier islands The Gull-billed Tern breeds primarily on the barrier islands off the Mississippi River delta, in rather small numbers. In 1976 Portnoy found only one colony in Southeast Louisiana, on Curlew Island, harboring 6 adults; two colonies in Atchafalaya Bay had 128 adults. This observer has seen a least a few colonies on Curlew on nearly every visit, with numbers typically totalling 20-25 birds. During the summers of 1981 and 1982 over 60 pairs nested on Grassy Island off the mouth of the Pearl River (LO'M,RDP,MM,DM). None were found there by Portnoy. Its nest is a scrape in the sand or shell detritus. There was previously only one nesting record away from the coast, on spoil at the Rigolets, but more recently Gull-billed Terns have been found breeding on roof-tops, specifically the UNO Assembly Center and Clearview Shopping Center in Metairie (Smalley, et al 1991). They are now breeding regularly in the latter location and may be seen feeding in the nearby drainage canals between May and August. In May, 1995, the colony consisted of 80-90 pairs (167 counted), and on May 27 29 young were counted (RDP). During the winter it is often quite difficult to find Gull-billed Terns, either near New Orleans or on the coast. In summer often one or two will be found at the ponds in Bayou Sauvage NWR on US 11 in New Orleans East. CASPIAN TERN (Sterna caspia) Common resident, nesting on sand strand habitat Although the Caspian Tern can be found on Lake Pontchartrain, it is most often found along the gulf coast. Although it is common, its numbers rarely approach those of the Royal Tern. Caspian Terns nest in sand-strand habitat on the barrier islands, in colonies numbering from a few dozen to 100 or so adults. Two colonies were found in Southeast Louisiana by Portnoy in 1976, with a total of nearly 200 individuals. ROYAL TERN (Sterna maxima) Very common to abundant resident, nesting on barrier islands The Royal Tern breeds in colonies of several thousand birds on the barrier islands, mainly at the lower end of the Chandeleur chain. Traditional areas of concentration have been Stake Island (in 1990 part of Curlew Island). Estimates of numbers have varied widely from year to year, reflecting changes in the islands (Stake and Curlew were washed away by Hurricane Camille in 1969), the effects of summer storms on nesting success, and differences in technique and expertise of the observers. Highest recorded numbers are 10-15,000 young on Curlew in 1975 (JV) and 29,000 breeding adults on May 10, 1985 (RDP). Arthur (1931) estimated 27,000 breeding Royal and Sandwich Tern nests on Grand Gosier Island, based on his conclusion that the nest density was one nest per square foot. This writer has counted 10 nests per square meter, which agrees very well with Arthur's estimate. Portnoy found about 16,000 adults on the Chandeleurs in 1976. The Royal Tern can be found on the south shore of Lake Pontchartrain, especially east of Lakefront Airport anytime other than the height of the breeding season, and on the coast throughout the year. SANDWICH TERN (Sterna sandvicensis) Abundant nester on barrier islands, uncommon to rare along the coast year round The Sandwich Tern breeds in huge mixed (but stratified) colonies with the Royal Tern on the barrier islands, but principally in the lower Chandeleurs. Portnoy found about 47,000 adults in Southeast Louisiana, including 45,000 in two colonies on Curlew Island. Maximum estimates are 30-50,000 young in the summer of 1987 (JV) and 49,000+ breeding adults on May 10, 1985 (RDP), both on Curlew Island. This writer estimated less than 25,000 Sandwich Terns on Curlew on July 7-9, 1989, plus up to 20,000 young. For further details on these colonies, see Purrington (1989?). Outside of the breeding season, or away from the islands, the Sandwich Tern is often difficult to find. Although winter records are relatively scarce Sandwich Terns are often very common on the gulf beach (Fourchon, Grand Isle) after early July, and well into late summer. There are only two New Orleans records: Dec. 26, 1982 (BC,RJN) and Aug. 16, 1985 (RDP), latter associated with Hurricane Danny. [ROSEATE TERN (Sterna dougallii) ] HYPOTHETICAL There are at least three reports of Roseate Tern from Southeast Louisiana and at least two sight records from southwest Louisiana. None of these records is considered adequate to add the species to this list or to the state list and the LBRC has recently removed Roseate Tern from the official list of Louisiana birds. Roseate Tern certainly might occur here, and there are Texas records to support this conclusion, but only a carefully documented sight or photographic record, or a specimen, will be acceptable. See Kaufman for extensive details on identification. Oberholser, in The Birdlife of Louisiana (1938) mentions a report by Stanley C. Arthur (Arthur, 1918) of one having been collected at Grand Chenier in February 1915, but a close reading of Arthur's publication must engender a great deal of scepticism about any record in it. The reports of this species for Southeast Louisiana are: Sep. 10-13, 1961 at New Orleans (SAG), in the wake of Hurricane Carla; Sep. 11, 1976 at Grand Isle (RH,RJS), this a bird heard giving its "chivvy" call; and Elmer's Island near Grand Isle on April 15, 1984 (fide VR). COMMON TERN (Sterna hirundo) Common late spring migrant, uncommon to rare winter visitor Although the Common Tern is very strongly coastal, there are occasional New Orleans records. This tern is only common on the gulf beach, and only from late May through perhaps late July, with almost all individuals being in basic plumage, i.e., either young or non-breeding adults. The Common Tern is also present along the coast in winter in very small numbers, but often will be missed on a coastal trip in that season. There is one breeding record, June 11, 1971 on Monkey Island at the lower end of Chandeleur Island (RJN,MM,RDP--photo), but adults in alternate plumage have been seen on the islands in summer. On June 21-23, 1973, three adults were seen along with several probable young on Curlew Island (RJN,AWP,RBH,HDP). Three were also seen June 19-20, 1975 in the Chandeleurs (fide JS), but this is during the period when non- breeding birds are still relatively common. According to Oberholser, Bent reported 25 pairs on Battledore Island on June 21, 1910, but later withdrew the record. Recent New Orleans records include Sep. 24, 1977 (JR), Sep. 20, 1979 (JR), and Nov. 22, 1981 (RDP, et al). The maximum concentration has been 300, on May 9, 1982 (RDP,MM,NN,DM) and August 12, 1990 (RDP....). Late July numbers include 68 on Fourchon Beach on July 22, 1990 (RDP,NN), 75-100 there on July 28, 1991 (RDP,GC), and 94 at the same location on Aug. 26, 1990 (.....). The most obvious distinguishing features are the dusky wing-tips (primary feathers) in flight, short tail (with outer web of outer feather dark), and a strong carpal bar, prominent in young and less so in adults. In young and non-breeding birds, the "winter" head pattern is distinctive (though see the Arctic Tern). There is not much difficulty in distinguishing this species from Forster's Tern, though inexperienced observers should be very careful since young Forster's Terns may have a short tail and dusky wing tips. Distinguishing Common from Arctic Tern is more difficult, but relevant only if one is trying to turn up the latter species, which has not yet been recorded in Southeast Louisiana. One should consult Kaufman (1990) for details. In breeding plumage note the short tail, the dusky primary feathers, and usually a reddish-orange rather than a yellow-orange bill. Generally speaking, Common Terns are common on the coast only from late May through July, although they may be expected into September. Most, but not all of the "summing" birds are in immature plumage, presumably mostly first summer birds. They are relatively uncommon throughout the winter, but always present. FORSTER'S TERN (Sterna forsteri) Common resident The Forster's Tern is the common small tern of Southeast Louisiana, easily found on Lake Pontchatrain, anywhere in the marsh, and even along residential canals in New Orleans East and Metairie. It breeds on marshy islands and on the periphery of the Mississippi delta (see Portnoy, 1977). Several thousand nest on Grassy Island, for example. LEAST TERN (Sterna antillarum) Common to abundant summer resident The Least Tern breeds wherever appropriate habitat is to be found--including shopping center rooftops! Rooftop nesting seems to be increasing as natural habitat near the city disappears or is subject to disturbance. In many cases these rooftop nesting birds feed in nearby drainage canals which carry residential and even industrial runoff, clearly a cause for concern. On the barrier islands, a typical colony will contain a few hundred breeding adults. Winter records are usually the result of misidentification. Expected dates are April 1 to September 1, while extreme dates of occurrence are March 18, 1984 at Grand Isle (RDP,DM) and Sept. 20, 1979. There is one credible winter record, Jan. 22, 1932 at Octave Pass (HCO). BRIDLED TERN (Sterna anaethetus) Rare, but regular offshore in summer Bridled Terns have been recorded on seven occasions off coastal Southeast Louisiana, and recent pelagic trips have shown them to be present every summer; the records span the period May 28 to September 2. The difficulty in finding them is that they seem to occur only at or near the "rips" or ocean fronts 10-50 miles offshore, where matts or rafts of sargassum occur. Typically, Bridled Terns will be found resting on boards or pieces of styrofoam along these grasslines at the interfaces between blue and green water. Many of the Bridled Terns are young, which are not pictured well in many of the guides. The records prior to the summer of 1992 were: July 24, 1977, 30 miles off Empire (NN); July 21, 1979, 70 mi SSE of Grand Isle (JK,RDP-- photos,MM,NN,JS,MB,JR, et al--6+); Sept. 2?, 1983, 19 miles SSE of South Pass (RDP-- photo); June 10, 1985, 20 miles SE of Southwest Pass (MM); Aug. 31, 1985 at 28o20'N, 90o50'W (MM); May 28, 1989, 20 miles SSE of South Pass (RDP,MM,DM--6); and June 1, 1990? 17 miles SSW of South Pass (RDP,DM,SWC,DLD--30). In the late summer of 1992, Hurricane Andrew struck the Louisiana coast just west of the checklist area, producing records of Bridled Tern inland at Laffite National Park on Aug. 27? (DM). Peak count is 59 25-50 miles SSE of South Pass on May 27, 1995. Finally, there is an old record attributed to H.C. Olberholser some time after June 2, 1932 from Grand Gosier Island, and reported in the Eleventh Biennial Report of the Department of Conservation for 1932-33. Oberholser himself does not mention it in his The Birdlife of Louisiana SOOTY TERN (Sterna fuscata) Local breeder on the Chandeleurs Until the 1960's there had been only one breeding record of the Sooty Tern in Louisiana, that on June 5, 1933 on Curlew Island (HCO). Then, in 1964 and 1967 nesting records were obtained on Curlew and Stake Islands, respectively (SAG,RJN,RDP,et al) and there is now a small, but stable colony of Sooty Terns breeding near the lower end of thee Chandeleur Islands (Purrington, 1970). As many as 67 adults and at least 19 nests have been counted on a single census of the islands. After Hurricane Camille, which washed away Stake and Curlew Islands, the colony shfited to Monkey Island at the end of Chandeleur Island, along with the huge Royal-Sandwich Tern colonies. When Curlew re-established itself (it has now, as of 1991, grown to include the sites of Stake I. on the north end and Errol I. on the south), the colonies returned to Curlew. Sooty Terns generally nest near the main tern colonies, often close to or mixed in with small Black Skimmer Colonies, and almost invariably build a nest in or under the edge of some brushy or shruby vegetation, although the nest is a scrape in the sand. Banding operations on Curlew I. in the late 1970's resulted in the banding of a number of nestlings and the netting of birds banded on the Dry Tortugas (HHJ,LO'M). One banded in the Tortugas on June 12, 1940 was found dead near Pontchatoula on Aug. 10, 1940 (fide JHL). Occasionally the Sooty Tern is encountered on pelagic trips off the mouth of the river, as on May 28, 1989 (DM,MM,RDP) and on June 1?, 1990 (RDP,MM?,DM,SWC,DLD), about 20 miles off South Pass. There are two? New Orleans records, both storm-related: one 8-9 miles from the south shore of Lake Pontchartrain, seen from the Causeway bridge on Aug. 30, 1977 (HP), and two at the east campus of UNO on July 11, 1979 (MB, m.ob.). Sooty Terns were found dead following Hurricane Andrew's landfall on Aug. 26, 1992 at...... Only once has Sooty Tern been seen from land in Southeast Lousiana, except during storms: May 30, 1992 at Grand Isle (JK,DR). Extreme dates are May 3, 1972, 20 miles off South Pass (RJN) and September 16, 1961 at Leeville, found dead following Hurrican Carla. BLACK TERN (Clidonias niger) Common migrant, abundant on the coast, and regular non-breeding summer resident on the coast Although the Black Tern is nominally a migrant through Southeast Louisiana, it is actually the commonest bird out of sight of land on the gulf in the summer and numbers as high as 2500-3000 have been found resting on shore in late July (July 28, 1991 on Fourchon Beach--RDP,GC). Most, but by no means all, of these birds will be in immature or non-breeding plumage. Expected dates of occurrence are May 5 to October 1; extreme dates are April 8, 1984 at Grand Isle (MM,DM,NN,RDP,ME?) and Nov. 8, 1985 at New Orleans (NN). There are four winter records: Jan. 23, 1932 at Pass-a-Loutre (HCO), Jan. 16, 1959 at Grand Isle (ART), Nov. 22 1970 on the Empire Canal (RJN,LO'M), and Feb. 6, 1971 at the same location (RJN,RJS). BROWN NODDY (Anous stolidus) Accidental There is one definite record of Brown Noddy for Southeast Louisiana, that of a bird found alive at a Norco, LA refinery on ......, at the time of Hurricane Carla (...) and beautifully photographed at close range; the record will be publihsed in the Journal of Louisiana Ornithology. There only apparently definitive record of a Noddy is of one seen in an aerial survey on Oct. 25, 1980, 220 km offshore (Wayne Hoffman, pers. comm.). One might look for this species if one found himself on the coast during of just after a Hurricane or tropical storm. BLACK SKIMMER (Rhyncops nigra) Common resident along the coast The Black Skimmer is largely coastal in its distribution, and breeds primarily on spoil areas, sand spits, and barrier islands. It is, however, sometimes seen inland near New Orleans and at the Bonnet Carre Spillway. Recently Black Skimmers have begun breeding in small numbers on shopping center rooftops, notably the Lake Forest and Clearview Shopping Centers. The first such nesting was noted in 1980 (MM). Well- known nesting sites are on Grassy I., several places in the Chandeleurs (especially Curlew and Grand Gosier Islands), and on Fourchon Beach, where human disturbance is extreme. Flocks containing up to 2000 individuals might be encountered on the sand spits bordering Barataria Pass in winter (including the east end of Grand Isle) or on Fourchon Beach. Family Alcidae ALCIDS ANCIENT MURRELET (Snynthliboramphus antiquum) Accidental In one of the more remarkable of all records for this area, a moribund Ancient Murrelet was picked up from the waters of Lake Pontchartrain by fishermen on May 6, 1954 (Lowery 1974). This, it probably goes without saying, is the only record for Louisiana, indeed, the only record of an alcid. ORDER Columbiformes Family Columbidae PIGEONS AND DOVES ROCK DOVE (Columba livia) Very common resident, breeding The introduced Rock Dove, native to Eurasia, is a familiar resident of cities and farms. BAND-TAILED PIGEON (Columba fasciata) Accidental That there are three records of this pigeon of the western forests is rather remarkable. The Band-tailed Pigeon is slightly larger than the Rock Dove, and has a banded tail, a white stripe on the nape, and a dark-tipped yellow bill. The records are: Jan. 21, 1954 at Napoleonville (John Thibaut), Dec. 1, 1969--a bird found dead on the roadside on US 11 in eastern New Orleans, and one seen at Pilottown on Dec. 6, 1981 (DM,JW). EURASIAN COLLARED DOVE (Streptopelia decaocto) Introduced; uncomon, but increasing Although Eurasian Collared Dove was first found at Ft. Pike, where it is still present, on ......(MM,NN), there are many records from all over the area, including Audubon Zoo, where they have been seen since about 1989? (fide James Beck ...), upriver near Laplace (?), along Bayou Lafourche, at Grand Isle, and in Plaquemines Parish. Although they show every indication of rapid expansion, only time will tell. Their presence may be due to the combination of range expansion from Florida and direct introduction, or perhaps only one of those explanations. The report that they have been present at Ft. Pike for as long as 22 years (fide RC; Am. Birds 47 (1993) 422), if true, suggests that they were introduced there, since the range expansion is a much more recent phenomenon. Observers should be careful not to confuse this species with the Ringed Turtle Dove or "Domestic Dove" (S. "risoria") which has no wild population. See Smith, American Birds 41 (1987) 1370. WHITE-WINGED DOVE (Zenaida asiatica) Uncommon to rare in winter, mostly in the delta The White-winged Dove is a faily regular straggler to the area from the southwest, and is take by dove hunters. It prefers open brushy habitat and is most frequently found near the coast and especially in the Boothville-Vencie area. The maximum numbers are 50+ at Golden Meadow in the winter of ....., and 136 on the 1990 Venice Christmas Bird Count (KR,...). There are few records for New Orleans proper (including one in a Metairie backyard--SP,RDP)[winter 1994, including Apr. 9-10, 1994, Metairie] and for the Reserve area. There were regular summer records at Delta NWR at Pilottown during the late 1960's, and a confirmed nesting there in 1971. White-winged Doves had summered there in 1969, staying until Aug. 17 (when Hurricane Camille struck), were present until June the following year, and on June 19, 1971, definite proof of nesting was obtained. The other summer records are June 29, 1951 at Grand Isle (LGG) and a pair on Breton Island on June 13, 1967 (JMV). A bird at Grand Isle on May 22, 1993 (PW,CS) was very late. Expected dates are October 20 to April 1, while extreme dates of occurrence, except for the records listed above, are Aug. 26, 1967 at New Orleans (JMH) and May 2, 1980 in Metair (SP,RDP). MOURNING DOVE (Zenaidura macroura) Very common to abundant resident This ubiquitous and familiar bird breeds commonly in both rural and residential areas and is often abundant on levees, in brushy fields, and waste areas. PASSENGER PIGEON (Ectopistes migratorius) EXTINCT Le Pae du Pratz reported the Passenger Pigeon abundant along the Mississippi in 1758 and Audubon found it abundant in Louisiana in 1826. Other records include Nov. 23 and Dec.5, 1874 at Covington (GEB), and another Covington record on Jan. 26, 1895. There were no Louisiana records after 1904. INCA DOVE (Columbina Inca) Accidental The only record of this small dove from the southwest U.S. and Mexico is of one in St. John Parish on Oct. 26, 1992 (RJS). Inca Doves have established themselves at several locations in Southwest Louisian in recent years, and the possibility of further range expansion is quite real. COMMON GROUND DOVE (Columbina passerina) Rare winter visitor Given the infrequency with which the Ground Dove is seen in Southeast Louisiana, statements about changes in abundance are hazardous. On the other hand, it does seem to be reported less frequently, even when habitat changes are taken into account. Most records come from near the coast, at Venice or Grand Isle, in fields or in brushy, waste habitat. There are a few sumer records, possibly indicating nesting, including June 30, 1963 at Ft. Jackson (SAG) and a number of occasions in the Reserve area, where it has been found breeding (RJS,MW). Expected dates for wintering birds are October 10 to April 20, with extremes of Sep. 24, 1977 (JR) and May 24, 1958 at Reserve (SAG). ORDER Psittaciformes Family Psittacidae MONK PARAKEET (Myiopsitta undulatus) INTRODUCED Rather than agonize over whether Monk Parakeet should be listed or not, we simply note that it seems to have become established, at least temporarily, in several sites in the New Orleans area, notably along West Esplanade in Metairie where for several years there were conspicuous nests on the transmission towers. Other areas include near Paris Ave. and Mirabeau, on South Claiborne Ave., etc. Whether breeding has occurred is not known. CAROLINA PARAKEET (Consuropsis carolinensis) EXTINCT Ridgway (Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. No. 50, Part VII, p. 148) mentions the occurence of the Carolina Parakeet in New Orleans. For information on the historical status of this parakeet in Louisiana, see McKinley..... ORDER Cuculiformes Family Cuculidae BLACK-BILLED CUCKOO (Coccyzus erythropthalmus) Uncommon to quite uncommon migrant The Black-billed Cuckoo is never common in migration, and is perhaps less so in fall than spring. It is not uncommon for one to miss this species in a given season. Interestingly enough, it breeds as close to the region as the lower Appalacians and Oklahoma and, in fact, there is now a breeding record for Louisiana, in the Atchafalaya basin in the summer of 1991. Expected dates of spring migrants are April 15 to May 20 and in fall approximately August 20 to October 20, though the dates are less certain.[4/17/94] The latest date of occurrence in spring is May 20, obtained in 1940 (TDB) and in 1980 (NN), both at New Orleans. In fall the extremes are Aug. 11, 1964 (ET) and Nov. 14, 1965 (JK), again both at New Orleans. YELLOW-BILLED CUCKOO (Coccyzus americanus) Common to sometimes abundant migrant In migration the Yellow-billed Cuckoo is at times the most common bird in the coastal woods, sometimes numbering dozens to hundreds at Venice or Grand Isle, and especially in the more extensive coastal woodlands of southwest Louisiana. On the other hand, there are strong indications that it has declined greatly in numbers in Southeast Louisiana as a breeding bird, mirroring a general decline in North America. This occasionally parasitic cuckoo nests from low bushes (including black mangrove on the barrier islands) to as high as 20 feet above the ground. It is especially fond of hairy caterpillars. Peak numbers in migration are 200+ at Grand Isle on May 7, 1983 (RDP,MM,NN). Large numbers have been seen in spring migration as late as May 21 (1995-NLN). Expected dates of occurrence are April 10 to November 5 and extreme dates are ...... and Dec. 1, established in both 1973 (RJS) and 1974 (MW) at the Bonnet Carre Spillway. There are three out-of-season records: March 4, 1957 at Reserve (RJS,MW,RDC), either a bird which overwintered or an extraordinarily early migrant; .....[NO CBC--NLN?]; and Dec. 31, 1987 at Venice (....). [SMOOTH-BILLED ANI (Crotophaga ani) ] HYPOTHETICAL The case of the Smooth-billed Ani is one of the more interesting in the annals of Southeast Louisiana birding. There are five records for Louisiana, all from Southeast Louisiana, but only one since the first decade of the twentieth century. There were two specimens taken, but neither is extant, and it is not clear whether either was examined by a competent ornithologist. H.L. Ballowe, who obtained four of the records between Diamond (just north of Port Sulphur) and Buras, never recorded the Groove-billed Ani in the delta, where it is now regular in winter. For these reasons, it seems advisable to be cautious about accepting the records given below, and recently the LOS Bird Records Committee has ratified the decision taken by Lowery in the last edition of his Louisiana Birds, to remove the species from the state list. The Smoth-billed Ani breeds in south Florida and has wandered to the Florida panhandle and even as far north as New Jersey, so its appearance here would not be out of the question. Oberholser (1938) mentioned that that the 1893 specimen was in the Tulane University Museum, but did not indicate whether he examined it or not. In any case, it is no longer in that collection. G.E. Beyer (Beyer, et al, 1908, p. 443) reported it as of occasional occurrence in St. Bernard Parish, without dates. The suposed records are: July 18, 1893 at Diamond (HLB--coll.), Jan. 29, 1906 at Buras (HLB), Jan. 14, 1908 at Buras (HLB), Feb. 8, 1908 at Buras (HLB--4), and Jan. 30, 1952 at Delta NWR (CLF--dead). GROOVE-BILLED ANI (Crotphaga sulcirostris) Uncommon to rare in winter, mostly near the coast* Although the Groov-billed Ani is fairly regular in coastal brush and roseau cane (Phragmites ) especially in the Venice area, it has been distinctly less common in the last several years than previously. It will occasionally be found in the New Orleans or Reserve areas, and as many as 25 have been recorded on a New Orleans Christmas Count. Groove-billed Anis are very gregarious, rarely being seen alone, and have a distinctive "chick-wee'" call. On July 4 and 5, 1971, adult anis of this species, with young out of the nest, were found in an orange grove at Triumph (RDP--photos,MEL,WB). Later that summer a nest was collected that was consistent with its being an Ani nest (fide RJN). The only other "summer" records, unless one considers Ballowe's July 18, 1893 record to have been of this species, was of one at Grand Isle on June 7, 1992 (MW,RJS) and June 14, 1992 (MM,RDP,GG), apparently different birds. Three at Grand Isle on Aug. 3, 1991 (PW) hint strongly of summering, if not nesting. Expected dates are October 10 to April 15 and extreme dates of occurrence are Sep. 16, 1973 at Venice (DN) and April 29, 1980 at New Orleans (JR). ORDER Strigiformes OWLS Family Tytonidae BARN OWLS COMMON BARN OWL (Tyto alba) Uncommon resident This familiar owl is usually encountered in small patches of woods which offer good feeding opportunities nearby, but may sometimes be flushed from a roadside ditch or be found searching for prey at dusk near a highway interchange or at the edge of a field. Sometimes one will be flushed from an abandoned house, barn, or boat house where it roots, or perhaps is nesting. Often there are one or two in the woods at Grand Isle. Family Strigidae EASTERN SCREECH OWL (Otus osio) Common resident The Screech Owl may be found wherever there are woods which offer adequate cover, but is not often found in conifers. Because of its secretive habits during the day, one is often not aware of its presence. It will, however, answer a decent imitation of its call, and while tapes should be used sparingly, it will readily respond to a taped call. Screch Owls are common in New Orleans' City Park but likely occur wherever there is a large stand of live oaks, and so are found in Lake Vista, in the woods along Bayou Sauvage, and so on. GREAT HORNED OWL (Bubo virginianus) Uncommon resident The Great Horned Owl is likely to be found in two rather different situations: in deep, mature woods, and in the coastal marsh where there is an oak motte or hammock. It will not be found, however, in the bottomland or cypress-tupelo swamps where Barred Owls are so much at home. Put differently, the Great Horned Owl may occur anywhere there is adequate cover for such a large bird, often merely several large oaks--except the swamp habitat to which the Barred Owl is confined. SNOWY OWL (Nyctea scadica) Accidental visitor (in winter) According to Beyer (1900), and repeated by Oberholser (1938), an individual of this boreal species of owl was shot during the winter of 1878-79 at Bayou des Allemandes. Such a record would be almost totally incredible were it not for the fact that the Snowy Owl is a species renowned for its irruptive surges southward in response to changes in distribution of its prey, and had one not over-wintered at Shreveport in the winter of 1977-78, where it was seen by many and photographed. Oberholser also reports that Gustav Kohn knew of a specimen taken at Baton Rouge prior to 1900 BURROWING OWL (Athene cunicularia) Rare in winter Although this small owl can be considered a regular winter visitor to the area from the west, it is quite uncommon, even rare, and is perhaps less common than a quarter century ago. In a given winter there may not be more than a single record or so, and in some years there are none. Burrowing Owls may be found roosting in culverts or in piles of trash or other debris, which offer cover and prey, usually at the edge of open grassy fields which are good for hunting. Although the east campus of UNO has traditionally been the best place to find Burrowing Owls in the area, much of the habitat is no longer suitable. Another place to look would be the Exxon fields near the west end of Grand Isle, but one might be encountered almost anywhere there is suitable cover and fields for hunting. It has frequently been found in the Buras-Venice area. Although they breed in Texas and Florida, they are found in Louisiana only in winter (though Lowery reported a nesting near Baton Rouge in April 1935). Expected dates of occurrence are approximately November 1 to March 15, but Burrowing Owls have been seen between Oct. 9, 1978, at New Orleans (TC) and May 20, 1972 on Grand Terre (KO,RJN,DN). BARRED OWL (Strix varia) Common resident of swampy woods As indicated above, the Barred Owl is found almost exclusively in cypress-tupelo and bottomland hardwood swamps, and apparently does not coexist with the Great Horned Owl. It is frequently seen in the daytime and will amost invariably be heard calling if one visits its habitat. Good places to find Barred Owls are in the Honey Island swamp (and in similar river or creek bottom habitat in the Florida parishes), in the Sarpy Swamp- Bonnet Carre Spillway area, in fresh water swamp near Paradis, etc. LONG-EARED OWL (Asio otus) Casual to accidental in winter This elusive species has been recorded only once, on Dec. 22, 1931 at Paradis (fide HCO; Bird Lore 34: 70 (1932)) Although it may occasionally winter north of Lake Pontchartrain, that is nothing more than a guess. There have been two or three relatively recent records in southwest Louisiana. SHORT-EARED OWL (Asio flammeus) Rare winter visitor There are 14 records of the Short-eared Owl spanning the period Ocober 26 to March 23; the records are distributed as follows: Oct. (1), Nov. (7), Dec. (3), Jan. (2), Mar. (2). Seven of the records date from before 1900. It should be looked for hunting low over the marsh near dusk or perched on a fence or in a low tree in the marsh. It is a very strongly marked bird, so that even in the poor light of dusk or dawn it is easily identified. The records are: Nov. 19, 1874 at Mandeville (fide HCO--coll.); January, 1888 at Kenner (fide HCO); Nov. 10 and 23, 1891 at New Orleans (fide HCO--coll.); Nov. 6 and 11, 1893 at New Orleans (GEB); March 23, 1894 at New Orleans (GEB); March 4, 1931 at Buras (ESH--coll.); Nov. 3, 1968 at Grand Isle (KPA); Dec. 21, 1971 near Slidell (SAG); Nov. 26, 1977-Jan. 4, 1978 at the Bonnet Carre Spillway (MW,RJS,m.ob.); Oct. 26, 1981 at New Orleans (JR,MB); Dec. 2, 1981 at New Orleans (DM); .....1985 at Venice (RDP....); May 13, 1992 in Barataria Bay (Bill Vermillion, Rich Martin); Nov. 14, 1993 at Bucktown (RDP, et al). NORTHERN SAW-WHET OWL (Aegolius acadicus) Accidental There are two records of this secretive owl, nearly 90 years apart: one shot in December 1889 near Madisonville (fide GEB) and Dec. 9-16, 1975 at Reserve (RJS). Saw-whet Owls do winter near enough to the area to make it worth keeping in mind the possibility that one might occur, probably most likely in the pine flats north of Lake Pontchartrain, but, in fact, almost anywhere. ORDER Caprimulgiformes GOATSUCKERS Family Caprimulgidae LESSER NIGHTHAWK (Chordeiles acutipennis) Very rare to occasional vagrant The Lesser Nighthawk has been recorded in Southeast Louisiana on at least nine occasions, all since 1957. The recorded dates span athe period Oct. 2 to May 2, distributed as follows: Oct. (1), Dec. (3), Jan. (1), March (1), April (2), May (1). The absence of February records tempts one to suggest that they ordinarily do not successfully over-winter, but the data are clearly skimpy. In the field, the Lesser Nighthawk is smaller and buffier, with somewhat shorter wings than its relative, the Common Nighthawk, and white bars very near the wingtip. The flight is also different, but this requires experience with the species. The records are: April 7, 1957 at Grand Isle (MM--dead); May 2, 1957 at Grand Isle (RJN--coll.); Dec. 4, 1959 at New Orleans (SAG); Dec. 18 at New Orleans (SAG); Oct. 2, 1965 at New Orleans (JK); Jan. 9, 1971 at Labranche (RJN,RJS); April 9, 1982 at Grand Isle (MM,RDP,DM,NN); Dec. 11, 1988 at Ft. Jackson (RDP,NN,DM,GC); March 30, 1991 at Grand Isle (DM,RDP,,,,). COMMON NIGHTHAWK (Chordiles minor) Common summer resident The Common Nighthawk is a familiar bird over almost the entire area in summer, from the New Orleans CBD to the barrier islands. It nests on rooftops and on the ground in waste areas, spoil, near the beach, and on barrier islands. The Common Nighthawk occasionally overwinters, primarily in New Orleans' CBD, but there are few recent records. E.S. Hopkins reported that this species arrived during "April 12-14 every year." Expected dates are April 15 to November 1, with extremes of Mar. 31, 1925 at Grand Isle (ESH) and Nov. 27, 1964 (SAG). During the southward movement in fall, large migrating flocks are sometimes seen. ANTILLEAN NIGHTHAWK (Chordiles gunlachii) Accidental The sole record of this newly recognized species is from the vicinity of the UNO campus May 27-Aug. 17, 1977 (JR,m.ob.). Several definitive recordings were made of the call. The bird may have briefly returned the following May, being present from May 24 to the end of the month (fide JR). This record has been ratified by the LOS Bird Records Committee. CHUCK-WILL'S-WIDOW (Caprimulgus carolinensis) Uncommon spring and fall migrant, regular summer resident north of Lake Pontchartrain This goatsucker breeds north of Lake Pontcharttrain, mostly in dry oak woodlands, and in places may be quite common. Listen for its chuk-wills-widow'! call. It is also a regular migrant in spring in fall. Much more interestingly, the Chuck-will's-Widow winters in the lower delta in small numbers, i.e., near Venice, and somewhat less regularly on Grand Isle. There are well over 30 winter records, and in fact this species is hardly less common in migration than in winter in those areas. Audubon said that he "saw many Chuck-will's-Widows about the streets [of New Orleans] and some Night Hawks" on March 15, 1821, which is early for either species. The regular wintering makes assigning expected and extreme dates hazardous, but it may be expected from March 25 or April 1 to about May 1 as a spring migrant, and from August 25 to October 20 in fall. The latest date in spring is May 21, 1981 at Boothville (RDP,NN), while the extreme fall dates are Aug. 7, 1982 at New Orleans (DM) and Nov. 13, 1983 at Grand Isle (DM,RDP,NN). WHIP-POOR-WILL (Caprimulgus vociferus) Uncommon to rare migrant; rare winter visitor in the delta The Whip-poor-will is a regular, but quite uncommon migrant throughout the area, certainly much less common than the previous species in migration, and also as a winter visitor. There are, however, at least.....winter records, including one at New Orleans on ....., on a Christmas Bird Count; most of the winter records are from Venice or Grand Isle. Expected dates in spring are April 1 to about May 1, and in fall, approximately Aug. 20 to Oct. 20, although these dates are quite uncertain. ORDER Apodiformes SWIFTS AND HUMMINGBIRDS Family Apodidae SWIFTS CHIMNEY SWIFT (Chaetura pelagica) Very common summer resident Although Chimney Swifts generally nest in chimneys, some nest in hollow trees as they did before the advent of man. Any swift seen after about November 1 should be carefully checked since there are no known wintering records. Expected dates of occurrence are March 20 (perhaps the 17th) to October 20, with extremes of March 10, 1958 (DJM,RFC) and Nov. 17, 1972 (RJS), both at Reserve. There is one very early spring record, of 10 presumed Chimney Swifts at New Orleans on Feb. 28, 1987 (CK), which is so early that it is here considered "out of season." VAUX'S SWIFT (Chaetura vauxi) Casual in winter, primarily in the Reserve- Laplace area Any swift seen in midwinter should be suspected of being of this species, since there are no records of wintering Chimney Swits. On the other hand, identification is very difficult, especially of fast-moving, poorly marked like these two species of swifts (and some of their cousins from the south). With but one exception, all of the Southeast Louisiana records are from the Reserve-Laplace area, perhaps because of the patient coverage given by Stein and Weber. Vaux's Swifts are small, pale underneath, with a buffy rump. Given the fact that they breed on the west coast of the U.S., it should not be considered out of the question that wintering swifts in south Louisiana might be of a central or South American species. The result is that while all of the records below are probably of Vaux's Swifts, and almost certainly not Chimney Swifts, they cannot be considered definitively identifed. So the Vaux's Swift is included in this list on the basis of probability (coupled with Lowery's banding records at Baton Rouge and a recent record based on calling birds), rather than certainty, an approach which is not taken elsewhere in this work. Although records span the period October 21 to March 10, the dated records available to this writer are: Dec. 23-March 10, 1975 at Laplace (RJS,MW); Nov. 10 and 16, and Dec. 17, 1975 at Laplace (RJS,MW) [different birds?]; Dec. 29, 1982 at Ft. Jackson (BC,RJN,MS,MM,DM,RDP); winter 1988.... Family Trochilidae HUMMINGBIRDS Ten species of hummingbirds are known to have occurred in Southeast Louisiana (11 for Louisiana), an area in which only one species, the Ruby-throat, breeds. The other eight species are vagrants, mostly in winter, some more common than others, of course. Although many observers have contributed to our knowledge of these vagrants, none has had the impact on local hummingbird studies than Nancy Newfield. Most have occurred at her Metairie feeders, including the first state record for Broad-billed Hummingbird and the second state records for Broad-tailed and Allen's. Indeed Newfield almost single- handedly introduced serious hummingbird feeding to the entire gulf coast and, arguably, to the southeastern U.S. Before her work, knowlege of these vagrant western hummingbirds was mostly confined to the New Orleans area. Others who ought to be mentioned in this regard are Ron Stein and Melvin Weber at Reserve and David Muth in New Orleans. In the 1960's, Thelma von Gohren and Ken McGee obtained the first local records of Buff-bellied and Black-chinned Hummingbirds. As recently as 1970 only Rufous Hummingbird could be expected in winter, Black-chinned Hummingbirds were considered extremely rare, and no others were known to occur. Most of the records below, except for Ruby-throated Hummingbirds, are of birds at feeders. See Newfield (....). BROAD-BILLED HUMMINGBIRD (Cyanthus latirostris) Accidental The first remarkable record of this western hummingbird from Louisiana was of one at Nancy Newfield's feeders from......1990. The bird was seen by dozens of observers and photographed. One might have expected many years to elapse before another record. Rather amazingly, however, another male Broad-billed Hummingbird was seen at Newfield's Oct. 12-13, 1992 (NLN)! Most recently, one was at Gwen Smalley's feeders from Jan. 5-..., 1995 (GS, m.ob.--ph). Another was seen in St. Mary Parish in 1992, bringing the Louisiana total to three. BUFF-BELLIED HUMMINGBIRD (Amazilia yucatanensis) Rare in winter, usually at feeders Although the first record of Buff-bellied Hummingbird was obtained in New Orleans in 1965, there have now been upwards of 50 records (?), spanning the period Oct. 11 to March 22. All but the first of these records have been obtained since 1974, with 5-10 records occurring in some winters. During the winter of 1982-3, Newfield banded eight Buff-bellied Hummingbirds in Southeast Louisiana. The total absence of records during the winter of 1984-5 might be attributable to the effects of the January 1984 freeze, which not only affected Louisiana, but south Texas and northern Mexico as well. Expected datea are approximately October 20 to March 15, with extreme dates of Oct. 11, 1975 (BR) and Apr. 18, 1979 (BR), both at New Orleans. The records through 1980 (at New Orleans unless otherwise indicated) were: Nov. 23-Dec. 30, 1965 (TVG-- photo to LSUMZ); Oct. 26, 1974-March 20, 1975 (BR,m.ob.--photos); Oct. 11, 1975-Feb. 24, 1976 (BR,m.ob.); Jan. 8, 1977 in Metairie (NLN); March 22, 1978 (KM,MM,RDP, et al), present from March to May; Dec. 2, 1978-Jan. 14, 1979 (BR); Dec. 13, 1978-Apr. 18, 1979 (BR); March 20, 1979 (BMcK); Dec. 24, 1979 (ELeB); Oct. 24, 1980 at Metairie (NLN). BLUE-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD (Lampornis clemenciae) Accidental The sole record for Louisiana of this hummingbird from the mountains of Mexico and the Southwest was of one at a Slidell feeder from March 7-April 25, 1995 (Peggy Siegert, NLN, m.ob.--ph.,vid.), banded by Newfield. RUBY-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD (Archilochus colubris) Common summer resident, casual winter visitor The Ruby-throated Hummingbird is, of course, the only breeding hummingbird in the eastern United States. Unlike the western vagrants, which are so few in number that one usually sees them only a points of concentration like feeders, the Ruby-throat is regularly encountered in the breeding season, in open woods or woodland edges, almost anywhere away from the coastal marsh. It became clear in the 1970's, especially through the banding efforts of Newfield, that the typical female or immature Archilochus hummingbird at feeders in Southeast Louisiana in winter is much more likely to be Black- chinned, than this species. There are, however, well over a dozen winter records of this species, and indeed, one or more will be found wintering in the area each winter. In the winter of 1991-2, up to nine were recorded in Louisiana. The expected dates of occurrence are March 20 to October 15, and extreme dates are March 3, 1958 (SAG) and NOv. 1, 1895 (fide HCO), both at New Orleans. BLACK-CHINNED HUMMINGBIRD (Archilochus alexandri) Rare winter visitor, sometimes not uncommon at feeders As recently as 1970, this species was considered a very rare vagrant in winter, occurring at only one set of feeders in uptown New Orleans (Ken McGee?). This situation seems to have changed less through increased numbers than through the efforts of observers like Nancy Newfield and Ron Stein, to attract hummingbirds and to learn to identify them, especially in female or immature plumage. Especially important, in the early stages, was Newfield's banding. So it is that in any given year, there may be upwards of a dozen Black-chinned Hummingbirds at area feeders, a few of which may be adult males, but the bulk being young males or females. Females present a serious identification problem, but can be told with a high degree of probability by their noticeably longer bill and rather dingy underparts. When hovering, they usually pump their tails forward and backward. For details, one should consult Newfield's Louisiana Hummingbirds, or the usual field guides. Black-chinned Hummingbirds can be expected between about October 20 and ....., with extremes of.......... ANNA'S HUMMINGBIRD (Calypte anna) Occasional to accidental in winter There are two records for Southeast Louisiana of this hummingbird, which breeds mostly along the Pacific coast, both from 1992: a female Nov. 18 in St. John Parish (RJS,MW,NLN) and a male Nov. 23 in St. James Parish (Tom Sylvest,JS,NLN--photos). Both were banded by Newfield. There are several records from Southwest Louisiana and Baton Rouge as well. CALLIOPE HUMMINGBIRD (Stellula calliope) Occasional to accidental in winter There are now about a dozen records of Calliope Hummingbird for the Se. Louisiana, scattered over the area, but mostly in the Reserve-Laplace-Norco area, all since 1982. One may speculate that they had been overlooked up to that point, but that raises a larger question concerning the rapid increase in number of species and inviduals at feeders, which has occurred since the 1970s. Is this due to the concentrating effect of plantings designed to attract hummingbirds, and the much more extensive feeder now going on, or do more individuals now winter or attempt to winter along the gulf coast? The first two records for Louisiana were obtained at the same set of residential feeders (Ron Stein's) almost exactly one year apart (the first bird was collected). The Calliope is quite small and short-tailed, giving it a long-winged appearance. The initial records were records: Dec. 6-8, 1982 (RJS,NLN, et al), collected by Cardiff, and Nov. 25-27, 1983 (RJS,NLN,m.ob.), both at Reserve; at Norco during the winter of 1987-88 [Feb. 26?, 1988...](RJS, et al)....also Laplace.....? BROAD-TAILED HUMMINGBIRD (Selasphorus platyceras) Rare vagrant in winter There are now at least ..... records of this hummingbird of the Rocky Mountains for Southeast Louisiana. As usual, most individuals would be expected to be immatures, and thus to be identifiable by their large size and buffy wash on the sides of the breast. The known records are: Dec. 5-20, 1978 (NLN,m.ob.--including RJN,BC,RDP,RJS,MM,NN,MB,etc),. Feb. 26, 1988?; ....Rickets, Nelkin, Muth.....; Feb. 27-Apr. 9, 1993 in St. John Parish (RJS).. 1995 Slidell RUFOUS HUMMINGBIRD (Selasphorus rufus) Uncommon vagrat in winter, at feeders Even in the case of the Rufous Hummingbird, which is regular in winter at feeders in New Orleans, Reserve, and elsewhere, there are few records in the field, away from feeders. This observer can recall, for example, only about three opportunistics records in the field in over 25 years of birding Southeast Louisiana. Dedicated feeding, especially if favored winter-flowering plants are present (Salvia, bottlebrush, sultan's turban, fire- spike, Abutilon, Cuphea, turk's cap, etc.) will very likely meet with success. Newfield banded 29 Rufous Hummingbirds during the winter of 1980-81. Although expected dates are October 10 to March 10, late August early migrants are not unknown. Extreme dates are Aug. 2, 1983 and March 22, 1980 (RDP,SP), both in Metairie. ALLEN'S HUMMINGBIRD (Selasphorus sasin) Casual winter vagrant at feeders The fact that there are now more than a half-dozen records of Allen's Hummingbirds from Southeast Louisiana, and others from Baton Rouge, means that care should be taken in identifying any Selasphorus hummingbird in winter. Although the Rufous Hummingbird is much the commoner of the two species, many, if not most will necessarily be recorded as Selasphorus sp. or as Rufous-Allen's. As indicated above, Broad-tailed Hummingbirds can be identified if seen well, and usually that is the case at a feeder. The first record of Allen's Hummingbird for Louisiana was of a bird present from Oct. 8, 1975 to March 6, 1976 in Reserve (RJS), which was eventually collected (LSUMZ #81486, identified by Allan Phillips). The other records include a dying bird collecte on March 12, 1978 which had been present for some time at a New Orleans feeder (MM,NN,RDP,KM,m.ob.--LSUMZ #86998, identified by J.V. Remsen), one netted at the Newfield's feeders on Jan. 6, 1979 (NLN,MB--coll./LSUMZ #89623), another at the Newfield's feeders in January 1987, and one in Reserve during the winter of 1987-88.... ; Nov. 23, 1992 in Jefferson Parish (NLN). For information on some of these records (through 1983) and the possibility of Rufous x Allen's hybrids, see Newfield (1983). ORDER Coraciiformes Family Alcedinidae KINGFISHERS BELTED KINGFISHER (Ceryle alcyon) Common resident The familiar Belted Kingfisher is common along bayous, canals, and at the edge of the marsh, throughout the area. During the breeding season, however, the Belted Kingfisher retreats from the immediate vicinity of the coast, because of the lack of bank nesting sites. ORDER Picidae WOODPECKERS RED-HEADED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) Common resident north of Lake Pontchartrain The Red-headed Woodpecker is a familiar resident of the mixed pine-deciduous woodlands north and east of Lake Pontchartrain. Although there is little hard data on the stability of numbers of Red-headed Woodpeckers, in the face of occupation of its nesting habitat by Starlings, there is at least reason for concern. An easy place to find this species is at Fontainbleau St. Pk. Red-headed Woodpeckers nest sparingly on the New Orleans lakefront, especially in Lake Vista (AS,GS,NN), but are difficult to impossible to find at any other time, though Reinoehl found Red-headed Woodpeckers to be uncommon migratns along the lakefront between April 22 and May 1 in spring, and Sept. 16 to Oct. 26 in fall. There are occasional records all the way to the coast, as at Grand Isle, for example. In recent years, Red-headed Woodpeckers have been present in and near Lake Vista, during at least the early part of the nesting season.....(fide NN). RED-BELLIED WOODPECKER (Melanerpes carolinus) Common resident Although both anecdotal evidence and New Orleans Christmas Count records suggest a slow decline in numbers since the 1960's, the Red-bellied Woodpecker is still a common and typical resident of all wooded habitats, from parks to deep woods. YELLOW-BELLIED SAPSUCKER (Sphyrapicus varius) Common winter resident The Yellow-bellied Sapsucker is the only definitively migratory species of woodpecker occurring in Southeast Louisiana (see, however, the discussion of Northern Flicker), breeding in the northern United States and the Rocky Mountains and wintering all across the southern U.S. The sapsucker is a common winter resident of woodlands all over the area, including residential areas. Its mewing call is distinctive. Close attention to the plumage details of wintering Yellow-bellied Sapsuckers may occasionally yield a Red-naped Sapsucker (see below). While Yellow-bellied Sapsuckers are expected between October 10 and April 15, extrteme dates of occurrence are Oct. 2 in 1960 (SAG) and in 1976, both at New Orleans, and May 7, 1966 at Venice (SAG). RED-NAPED SAPSUCKER (Syraphicus nuchalis) Occasional or accidenta in winter The only record of Red-naped Sapsucker for Louisiana is of young male at Grand Isle ......, and extensively photographed (RDP,GS). Another bird, thought to have been of this species, also photographed, was seen in New Orleans in the winters of 1989-90 and 1990-91 (NN,m.ob.), but has since been judged to have been a Yellow-bellied Sapsucker (Paul Lehman, et al). For identification details, see Kaufman (1990), ....Kaufman (19...) DOWNY WOODPECKER (Picoides pubescens) Common resident Although the Downy Woodpecker declined in the early 1970's to a minimum of only nine on the 1975 New Orleans Christmas Bird Count, the 1980's showed a three-fold increase. Those beginners who are troubled by the problem of judging the size difference between this and the next species should learn the calls, which are quite distinctive. The call of the Downy Woodpecker is, by comparison with the Hairy, a softer "pik"!, along with a "whinny" or "rattle" which is unlike any vocalization of its larger relative. The Downy is, however, considerably smaller than the Hairy Woodpecker, with a relatively smaller bill. HAIRY WOODPECKER (Picoides villosus) Uncommon to common resident As measured by New Orleans CBC's, the winter ratio of Hairy to Downy Woodpeckers is about 1:4. The call of the Hairy Woodpecker is a very strong and sharp "piik"! RED-COCKADED WOODPECKER (Picoides borealis) Uncommon (to rare) resident in the Florida parishes The endangered Red-cockaded Woodpecker breeds rather sparingly in mature pine woods, nesting in dying trees infected by "red heart" disease. Nest holes are readily recognized by the long streaks of sap which surround them. Although this species is threatened by present-day forestry practices, the endangered status of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker means that efforts are being made by the USFWS and others to preserve breeding habitat all across the southeastern United States. The total population is estimated to be on the order of 1000 individuals. The Red-cockaded Woodpecker can be recognized by its distinctive nasal, almost starling-like call. The best-known localities at the moment are east of Abita Springs off La 36 and near the entrace of Fontainbleau St. Pk. Details might be obtained from local birders, the Louisiana Nature Center, or the Guide to Bird-Finding in the New Orleans Area. NORTHERN FLICKER (Colapter auratus) Common to very common in winter, summering mainly north of Lake Pontchartrain Three sub-species of "yellow-shafted" flickers are known to occur in Southeastern Louisiana, C. a. b orealis and C. a. luteus in winter, and C. a. auratus as a permanent resident, mainly north of the lake. Thus while a Norther Flicker may occasionally be seen in New Orleans, or nearer the coast, in summer, that is rather unusual. The "red-shafted" form C. a. collaris has been recorded on fewer than five occasions. Flickers begin to appear south of the lake in early September. PILEATED WOODPECKER (Dryocopus pileatus) Uncommon resident The Pileated Woodpecker occurs wherever there are deep and extensive woods, and has even been seen at Venice and Grand Isle, on the coast. Good places to look for Pileated Woodpeckers are Honey Island, Fontainbleau St. Pk, the Bonnet Carre Spillway/Sarpy Swamp, and perhaps Bayou Sauvage ridge. IVORY-BILLED WOODPECKER (Campephilus principalis) EXTINCT? Although the Ivory-billed Woodpecker once occurred in Southeast Louisiana, in virgin bottomland hardwood forests, it has not been seen in many decades one can confidently say that it will not be seen again. The species is probably extinct in the United States, but if not, it will surely be so soon. Reports from the Atchafalaya basin in the early 1970's should be greeted with caution, if not scepticism, and reports of individuals in the Pear River bottoms below Bogalusa since the 1960's can probably be rejected outright. ORDER Passeriformes OLIVE-SIDED FLYCATCHER (Contopus borealis) Uncommon fall migrant The Olive-sided Flycathcer breeds in the northern forests of the U.S. and Canda and in the Rocky Mountains south to the Arizona-Mexico border. It is a regular fall migrant through Southeast Louisiana on the way to its wintering grounds in South America, albeit in quite small numbers, but there are only four spring records, all in May. A possible explanation is that the Olive-sided Flycatcher is strictly a circum-gulf migrant in spring and less so in the fall. Rarely does one see more than one or two in a fall, and often it is simply missed. Identification is only a little bit subtle, for although it look's something like a pewee, it is larger, has a big-headed look, and indeed is a sort of cross between a pewee and an Eastern Kingbird. It also has a strong "vested" look, caused by dark sides to the breast. The white tufts on the side are often not visible. The song, which is rarely, if ever, heard in Louisiana, is a very clear "hip, three beers!" As a fall migrant, the expected dates are August 25 to October 1, with rather a strong peak in mid September. Extremes are Aug. 14, 1983 at Grand Isle (MM,NN,RDP) and Nov. 4, 1961 at Venice (SAG). The spring records, all from New Orleans, are: May 6, 1901 (AA), May 2, 1961 (SAG), May 4, 1980 (JR), and May 15, 1981 (NN). Maximum number: 8 at Grand Isle on Aug. 22, 1977. WESTERN WOOD PEWEE (Contopus sordidulus) Accidental The is one record of this western flycatcher for Southeast Louisian, of one seen and heard singing in New Orleans' Lake Vista subdivision on......, 1989 (DM; MM,NN,RDP...). The bird gave a full song, which was taped, several times, and was heard by several observers, including this writer. Although there are a number of fall records (several collected) from southwestern Louisiana, and another New Orleans record likely to have been of this species (MM), observers should not expect to be able to definitively identify a pewee as being of this species, in the field. While a photograph might just suffice, netting or collecting are the only sure ways, barring the unlikely circumstance of a singing bird, as in the record above. The the purposes of probable or possible identification, the Western Wood Pewee is darker below, has a vested look, and will probably have a dark lower mandible. EASTERN WOOD PEWEE (Contopus virens) Common to very common migrant, uncommon nesting bird in pine flats Most pewees are seen in migration, when they are often very common (10-15 or more in a day), but they do breed north of Lake Pontchartrain in second-growth pine flat habitat, in modest numbers. The distincitive "pee-a--wee!" song makes locating them, in migration or on the breeding ground, not very difficult. The solft call-note is also easily learned. There are two records from New Orleans proper which are late enough to be candidates for breeding: .....(JN) and May 29, 1992 (DM). Expected dates of occurrence are April 15 to May 20 in spring, and August 10 to October 20 in fall, while extreme dates are, in spring March 23, 1992 at New Orleans (DM) [previously March 25, 1969 (RDP)] and May 27, 1978 (JR), both at New Orleans, and in fall July 17, 1957 at New Orleans (SAG) and Nov. 17, 1985 at New Orleans (RDP) and at Lafitte NP (DM). There are four winter records, all considered reliable: Feb. 26, 1967 at Buras (JK); Dec. 21, 1968 at the Rigolets (JK); Dec. 26, 1976 at Reserve (RJS); and Dec. 4, 1983 at Boothville (DM,JVR,TP--coll). EMPIDONAX FLYCATCHERS Empidonax sp Uncommon to common migrants, especially near the coast, and depending on species Five species of empidonax flycatchers occur in Southeast Louisiana, four as migrants and one, the Acadian Flycatcher, as a summer resident. Two other species have been recorded in Louisiana, Hammond's Flycatcher, of which there are two winter records, and "Western" Flycatcher, obtained in 1991 (the western has been sub-divided in Pacific Slope and Cordilleran Flycatchers, and it remains to be seen whether the spring 1991 record can be assigned to species). Only Dusky Buff-breasted, and Gray Flycatcher, of the North American empidonax flycatchers, have not been recorded in the state. Since field identification is difficult, and since no netting is nor being carried out in Southeast Louisiana, it is difficult to generalize very confidently about the relative abundance of the several species, and when they are present. The best information which is available is based on birds which have been collected in spring and fall in Southwest Louisiana. Where such information is available to the author, it is given in the species accounts. The identification problem, is, of course, very difficult. The best sources of information are a series of articles in Birding and Kaufman (1990). If one insists on identifying every empidonax he sees, he may be wrong as often as he is right. On the other hand several species can be identified with high probability, depending on season, and identification by call is often quite definitive, the problem being that not only do these flycatchers rarely sing on migration, they often do not call either. Briefly, however, the Willow and Least Flycatcher give a "whit!" call, and these two species are usually distinguishable from each other by plumage (especially the eye-ring). Of course the Gray and Dusky Flycatchers also give a "whit" call, but they have not yet been recorded in Louisiana and the Gray Flycatcher is the only empidonax that flicks its tail downward. Dusky is also large compared to a Least Flycatcher and is very long-tailed.1 The calls of Acadian, Yellow-bellied, and Alder Flycatcher are distinctive, once learned. In the absence of vocalization, note bill size and shape, color of lower mandible, throat color, primary extension, eye-ring (whether prominent or not, and shape), and tail length. The consult Kaufman. Perhaps the most difficult problem (aside from the "Traill's problem) is distinguishing Acadian and Yellow-bellied, both of whom may have yellow underparts (as may other species) and are large billed. The expected dates for the flycatchers of this genus are April 10 to May and August 15 to October 15. Extreme dates are, in spring, Apr. 4, 1971 (RDP) and May 20, 1990 (RDP,....), both at Grand Isle, and in fall, July 17, 1957(SAG) and Nov. 19, 1966 (RDP), both at New Orleans. There are at least nine, probably more, winter records of unidentified empids: Nov. 30, 1952 at New Orleans (HBC); Dec. 1, 1957 at Venice (JPG,SAG); Dec.8, 1957 at Venice (JPG,SAG); Dec. 21, 1957 at New Orleans (CLE,HAJE); Dec. 28, 1965 at Venice (fide SAG); Dec. 28, 1972 at Venice (SAG,et al); Dec. 29, 1972 at Reserve (RJS,MW); Dec. 29, 1973 at Reserve (fide RJS); Dec. 13, 1975 at Mandeville (RDP).... YELLOW-BELLIED FLYCATCHER (Empidonax flaviventris) Uncommon spring and fall migrant The Yellow-bellied Flycatcher is a very active, rather large-billed empidonax., with a somewhat pewee-like call. Compared to the Acadian Flycatcher, it has a rather short primary extension (see Kaufman, 1990). Generally it is greenish on the back and has yellow underparts and yellow throat, but neither of these features are constant or distinctive. According to Kaufman it is a late spring migrant and favors the interiors of woods. There are but four records which can reasonably be said to be of this species, but as is the case with all except the Acadian Flycatcher, which breeds, this does not reflect its true abundance. The records are: May 8, 1959 at New Orleans (SAG), a bird which was singing; Sept. 14, 1950 at New Orleans (SAG--coll); Oct. 12, 1968 at Venice (JK), a bird which was banded; Oct. 6-7, 1986 at Lafitte NP (DM); Sept....., 1994 at New Orleans (NN--singing). Another probable record is May 29, 1992 at New Orleans (DM). ACADIAN FLYCATCHER (Empidonax virescens) Common summer resident The Acadian Flycatcher breeds commonly in bottomland hardwood swamp habitat and is easily detected by its explosive "wick-ee-up!" song which it utters constantly. On migration it never sings, but gives a distinctive, complex "empidonax-type" call which is hard to render. The "weece!" given in the National Geographic Field Guide is much better than Kaufman's "peek". Perhaps "weep" is better, but that is a matter of personal perception. The Acadian Flycatcher is very large-billed for an empidonax and has a large primary extension, which is easier to see on this species because it is relatively placid or inactive. It usually has considerably more eye-ring than the "Traill's"-types and is much larger and bigger-billed than a Least. Because it may have considerable yellow on the underparts, especially, but not only, in fall, it may be easily confused with the previous species. Expected dates are April 5 to October 10, with extrerme dates of occurence of March 27, 1965 at Grand Isle (SAG) and Nov. 3, 1985 at Lafitte NP (DM,CL). [TRAILL'S FLYCATCHER] Presumed uncommon spring and fall migrant With the splitting of Traill's Flycatcher into the two song types, what little information which existed on these two flycatchers became considerably less useful, since the records of singing individuals were often not recorded as to song type. While there are only three definite records of Willow Flycatcher and none of Alder, "Traill's"-type flycatchers are considered to be regular in migration, in modest numbers. Lacking substantiation of this assumption, and without any knowledge of the relative frequency of the two types, every effort should be made to secure additional information. "Traill's" Flycatchers are large and big-billed and usually have a very faint eye-ring. Kaufman says that the primary extension is large. Both species breed across the northern U.S. and souther Canada, but the Willow Flycatcher breeds down through the Rocky Mountains into New Mexico and has apparently nested in north Louisian, near Monroe. In addition to the Willow Flycatcher records given below the records of Willow/Alder Flycatchers are: Sep. 9, 1924 at Harvey (ESH--coll); and Sep. 5, 1957, Sep. 6, 1957, and May 1, 1960, all at New Orleans and all singing (SAG); Sept. 4, 1994 at Grand Isle (RDP). ALDER FLYCATCHER (Empidonax alnorum) presumed regular migrant Although there are no certain records of Alder Flycatcher for Southeast Louisiana, records from Southwest Louisiana suggest that it may be a regular migrant through the area, although such extrapolation is hazardous and in many cases would prove wrong. It is hoped that banding may eventually decide this question definitively, but observers should, of course, be alert for the possibility of a calling Alder (see below). WILLOW FLYCATCHER (Empidonax trailli) Probably an uncommon spring and fall migrant Short of netting or collecting, the only way to identify a Willow Flycatcher is by song ("fitz-bew!") or by its "whit!" call. In the latter case, identifcation may still only be probable, since three other empids give a "whit" call (though in the Southeast the likely confusion is with Least which is usually distinguishable in the field). See the discussion above and Kaufman (1990). Willow and Alder (Empidonax alnorum) can be distinguished from each other by song or call, the Alder's Song being a buzzy "fee-be-o!" and its call a rather sharp "peek!". The three records of Willow Flycatcher are: Sep. 16, 1935 (TDB--coll), Sept. 20, 1935 (TDB--coll), and Nov. 3, 1985 (AS), all at New Orleans, and Oct. 20, 1991 at Triumph (RDP--calling). LEAST FLYCATCHER (Empidonax minimum) Probable uncommon spring and fall migrant The Least Flycatcher is one of the most distinctive of the empids, being small, small-billed, and having a prominent eye-ring. See Kaufman (1990) for other details. The call is a "whit!" (see discussions above). Except for the common Acadian Flycatcher, the Least is probably the most common empid in Southeast Louisiana, though there are no data and only modest anecdotal evidence to support that conclusion. Most of the winter records of this genus (see above) are thought to be of this species, and several definitely gave "whit!" call notes. During the winter of 1993-4, there were at least four present near Ft. Jackson with one lingering as late as Mar. 6 (RDP). There are two winter records of Hammond's Flycatcher, whose call note reminds this observer of the call note of "Audubon's" Warbler--but slightly sharper, for Louisiana. The definitive records of Least Flycatchers in Southeast Louisiana are : Jan. 1, 1957 (coll), Sep. 14, 1960 (SAG--singing), and Aug. 26, 1961 (SAG--singing), all at New Orleans. Other highly probable records include Feb. 23, 1993 in Plaquemines Par. (DM-- call), Sept. 26, 1993 at Grand Isle (MM,RDP), and Nov. 26, 1993 at Ft. Jackson (DM,NN,PY). [9/4 GI (RDP), 9/15/94 NO (PY)], etc. [DUSKY FLYCATCHER (Epidonax oberholseri) HYPOTHETICAL] An empidonax flycatcher seen and photographed at Grand Isle on ......(DM....) was thought to have been of this species. Expert opinion has been just about equally divided between those who regard the bird as as being of this species and those who take it to be minimum, which makes it worth mentioning here. The Dusky has a "whit" call note, like Willow and Least (and Gray), has a substantial eye-ring, a "vested" look, and a long tail. See Kaufman (1990). CORDILLERAN FLYCATCHER (Empidonax difficilis) Accidental vagrant There is one record of this complex, "Western" Flycatcher, which as of the time of writing had been split into two sibling species, the Pacific Slope (E. dificilis) and Cordilleran Flycatchers (E. occidentalis) based primarily on their very different songs. There are three Louisiana records of "Western Flycatcher", all specimens, consisting of birds collected in Cameron Parish and near Crowley, both Pacific Slope, and one obtained at Ft. Jackson in Plaquemines Parish on Feb.... 1994 (SWC,DLD), belonging to this species. EASTERN PHOEBE (Sayornis phoebe) Common winter resident The Eastern Phoebe is the only normally wintering flycatcher in Louisiana. It is a familiar bird of open, waste habitat, stands of willows, and even denser woodlands. It has a distinctive call and its song, which gives it its name, a wheezy "fee-bee" is distinctive. The Phoebe has bred in north Louisiana. Expected dates are October 10 to March 25, with extreme dates of occurrence being Sep. 25, 1897 (fide HCO) and May 5, 1936 at Grand Isle (AD). SAY'S PHOEBE (Sayornis saya) Casual vagrant Although there are only two records of this flycatcher from the southeast, there are several more records from Baton Rouge to southwest Louisiana. It should be considered a real possibility in fall or winter, especially near the coast, as at Venice. Although the Say's Phoebe is strongly marked, one should be careful not to confuse it with a female or young male Vermilion Flycatcher. The records are from the same fall: Sep. 29, 1957 at Reserve (DJW,RFC,RJS--coll) and Nov. 23, 1957-Feb. 16, 1958 at Howze Beach (now "Treasure Island") in St. Tammany Parish (SAG, et al). VERMILLION FLYCATCHER (Pyrocephalus rubinus) Rare fall migrant and winter vagrant Over 60 individuals of this species have been recorded in Southeast Louisiana, all since 1944. Some have shown such a strong attachment to their wintering territories that they have returned year after year. One was seen in City Park from the winter of 1956-57 through 1961-62; another was at Ft. Jackson from 1968-69 to 1972-73. Since the 1970's records have been somewhat scarce, for no easily discernable reason. Fifty-four records compiled prior to 1970 were distributed as follows: Sep. (1), Oct. (1), Nov. (12), Dec. (19), Jan (9), Feb. (8), and March (4). These data clearly show that Vermilion Flycatchers often overwinter. There is one anomalous summer record, of a female? at the Bonnet Carre Spillway on July 17, 1976 (MW). Expected dates are October 15 to approximately March 5, with extremes of Sep. 22, 1979 (MB,BMcK) and March 8, 1961 (SAG), both at New Orleans. ASH-THROATED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus cinerascens) Rare winter vagrant Three species of myiarchus flycatchers occur in Louisiana: Ash-throated and Brown-crested (formerly Wied's), and Great-crested, which breeds. The first two only occur in fall and winter, generally after Great-cresteds have departed, and there are no winter records of the latter. The Ash-throated Flycatcher is much the smallest of the three--typically being about phoebe-sized, and has quite pale underparts by comparison with the other two. The surest way to identify these flycatchers is to observe the tail patter, from below. In this species, the tail feather is dark on the outer side of the shaft and on the tip; in Great-crested and Brown-crested the outer side of the shaft is dark all the way to the tip. The Ash-throated usually has an all-dark bill, which is usually quite small-looking. The only problem is that robust individuals can look much more like Brown-cresteds. The key, if the bird does not vocalize, and Ash-throateds usually do not (the call, however, is a wheezy "ker-weir", or "ka-brek", or sometimes only a single "wheet", but can become a repeated, strident jumble of similar notes), is to use the entire ensemble of characteristics. With care, identification is easier than these cautions suggest. It should be noted, however, that the distant possibility exists that another species of myiarchus might occur, including Dusky-capped(M. tuberculifer), Yucatan (M. yucantanensis), Swainson's ... or, especially, Nutting's Flycatcher (M. nuttingi) , which has occurred in Alabama?. There are at least 25 records of Ash-throated Flycatcher for Southeast Louisiana, all since 1969. The species has been recorded between September 12 (1970--DN) and March 12 (1959), with a rather remarkable May 1 (1960--DGB,SLW) sighting; there are no records between Sep. 12 and Nov. 11. Most, but by no means all, of the records are from the Venice area. Eighteen dated records at hand are distributed as follows: Sep. (1), Nov. (5), Dec. (5), Jan. (4), Feb. (3), March (2), and May (1). Recent records include: Dec. 26, 1983 at New Orleans (MW); Dec. 29, 1983 at Venice; Jan. 8, 1985 at New Orleans (JR,DM,MM,RDP,NLN,PN--coll); Dec. ?, 1987 (DM,JH) to Jan. 1 (DM,RDP) at New Orleans; Dec. 29, 1991 at Venice (DM,NN?--2; PH); Jan. 3-16, 1993 at Venice (RDP,DM,SC,DD,PY....); Jan. 2, 1994 at Ft. Jackson (RDP,ASt); Jan. 15, 1994 at Ft. Jackson (PW,JK,MS--5?); Jan. 2?, 1995, Ft. Jackson (DMP,RDP). A record at New Orleans on Dec. 27, 1981 (MW) is likely to have been of this species. GREAT-CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus crinitus) Common summer resident The Great-crested Flycatcher is one of three breeding species of flycatchers in Southeast Louisiana. Nesting in woodlands all over the area, including, apparently, on Grand Isle, it is easily located by its strong, distinctive "reep!" call. Of the three species of myiararchus which have occurred in Louisiana, only the Great-crested Flycatcher has not be recorded in winter. The Great-crested Flycatcher is generally much larger than the Ash-throated and much brighter yellow on the breast, and its bill is usually (but not always) horn colored. Compared to the Brown-crested Flycatcher, the Great-crested has a much better definedboundary between the yellow belly and the gray throat and upper breast than in its western cousin, in which the boundary is very washed-out. The Great- crested also shows very prominent white edgings to the secondary converts or tertials which create very prominent "v's" on its back. The expected dates of occurrence of the Great-crested Flycatcher are March 25 to October 1, with extreme dates of March 12, 1894 (GEB) and Oct. 6, 1968 at New Orleans (RDP). BROWN-CRESTED FLYCATCHER (Myiarchus tyrannulus) Rare to casual winter vagrant There are at least 15 Southeast Louisiana records, totalling at least 20 individuals, of this flycatcher which breeds from southern Texas and Arizona south into Mexico, spanning the period Nov. 24 to March 25. All but one of the records are from the Buras-Venice area near the mouth of the Mississippi River. The individuals which reach Louisiana in winter are probably mostly young birds, perhaps moving laterally along to the gulf coast. There is only one record after Jan. 27, a fact which may mean that not many successfully overwinter, or may simply reflect the poor coverage of the Venice area after the Christmas Count period. The records listed here should not be allowed to obscure the difficulty of identification, even under the best of conditions and even when the observer is familiar with all three species (and more) of myiarchus. The identification details have been enumerated above, but generally, the Brown-crested Flycatcher is large, with a large, generally black bill, is usually bright yellow below, with a gray throat which blends smoothly into the yellow, with tail feathers whose outer webs are rufous and inner webs are dark (like the Great-crested), and with a relatively featureless back compared to the Great-crested. Although examination of a series of specimens of the three species will quickly disabuse anyone of the notion that identification is easy, attention to all field marks can yield reliable results. In the case of the two vagrant myiarchus flycatchers, it is not merely desirable to ascertain the tail pattern, but almost essential. Until recently, all Louisiana specimens were of the small-billed race cooperi, though there have been several sight records of very large-billed individuals, presumably M. c. magister, from the Southwestern U.S. and western Mexico. The only record known to this writer of Brown- crested Flycatchers vocalizing in Louisiana occurred when three or more were present at Ft. Jackson on Nov. 26, 1993 (DM,NN,PY). The records are: Nov. 24, 1961 at Venice (BJD--coll); Dec. 1, 1961 at Venice (BJD); Nov. 28, 1966 at Venice (MW--coll); Dec. 7, 1969 at Reserve (RJS,RJN); Dec. 31, 1970 at Venice (SAG,RDP,DN,JHe--2); Dec. 23, 1973 at Venice (RJS, et al--3); Jan. 27, 1974 at Venice (RJN,RDP,DN); Dec. 31, 1974 at Venice (SAG,RJN); March 25, 1979 at Venice (MM,NN); ...fall 1987 at Grand Isle (CS,...;DM,RDP,MM); Jan. 3, 1993 at Venice (DM,RDP), Jan. 3 (DM,RDP) and 16, 1993 (DM,DLD,SWC,PY--3*), Nov. 26, 1993 Ft. Jackson (DM,NN,PY--3); Jan. 15, 1994, Ft. Jackson (PW,JK,MS); Feb......, 1994, Ft. Jackson (,SWC,DLD--4* coll.), ...., Ft. Jackson (Jon Dunne, GS), ....Ft. Jackson (SWC,DLD*). GREAT KISKADEE (Pitangus sulphuratus) Accidental What was almost certainly a singe individual of this species wintered on Paris Road in New Orleans East from 1975-76 to 1978-79. There are two? other records for Louisiana, from Cameron Parish. The first record, and the only sighting that winter, was on the Dec. 20, 1975 New Orleans CBC (MM,NN, surely one of the most spectacular records for a New Orleans Christmas Count (equalled probably only by the Zone-tailed Hawk on the 1984 count). The bird was again seen nearly two years later, at the same spot (within 150 yards), on Oct. 8, 1977 (PS), and was present until at least March 21, 1978. During the 1978-79 winter, the bird was seen from Oct. 10 (FB) to at least Jan. 3. SULPHUR-BELLIED FLYCATCHER (Myiodynastes luteiventris) Accidental As remarkable as the occurrence of the above species, was a record of the Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher at Grand Isle on Sep. 30, 1056 (RJN,EOW). The sighting was within a week of Hurricane Flossy, which may or may not be relevant. There are now two records from southwest Louisiana and a Myiodynastes sighting from southern Mississippi which was probably of this species. If a flycatcher of this species is seen, it should be carefully described or photographed, since the Streaked Flycatcher (M. maculatus) is almost identical, differing mainly in having nearly white, streaked, underparts, and has occurred in the U.S. TROPICAL KINGBIRD (Tyrannus melancholicus) Accidental There is one record of the Tropical Kingbird, the first record for Louisiana, for Southeast Louisiana, that of a bird collected on Chenier Caminada just west of Grand Isle (Jefferson Parish) on May 12, 1984 (BC,RJN,NLN) . This record occurred shortly after the "Tropical" Kingbird was split into two species, the Tropical Kingbird, which breeds from southern Arizona south along the western coast of Mexico and the Couch's Kingbird, which breeds in south Texas and northeastern Mexico as well as Yucatan. The only reliable way to tell these two species apart is by call, since the Tropical Kingbird gives a rapid twittering call which is very different from either the "queer!" of "pip-pip!" calls of Couch's. Either species is distinguished by a forked tail (stronger in this species), a black ear-patch or "mask" (darker in the Tropical Kingbird), yellow which goes well up onto the lower throat, and a somewhat heavier bill than Western or Cassin's Kingbird. Although a yellow-bellied kingbird with forked tail at New Orleans on .....(SAG,MM;MB) was thought to havae belonged to this complex, it has been suggested that it may have been a White-throated (Snowy-throated?) Kingbird (Tyrannus...). COUCH'S KINGBIRD (Tyrannus couchii) Accidental The lone record of this species is one found near Paradis on January 27 (Bill Ayers, CF--photos) and identifed on February 10 (RDP,NN,GC--photos). The bird several times gave the distinctive "pip-pip" call which definitively marks it as couchii. The is one previous record of this species, from Cameron, in southwest Louisiana. There are several other Tropical/Couch's records for Louisiana including a bird that very possibly belonged to this complex seen on the New Orleans CBC on .......(SAG,MM). WESTERN KINGBIRD (Tyrannus verticalis) Rare to very uncommon most fall vagrant There are upwards of 100 records of the Western Kingbird for Southeast Louisiana from every month but June. Approximately 71 dated records were distributed as follows: July (1), Aug. (4), Sep. (25), Oct. (16), Nov. (8), Dec. (3), Jan. (1), Feb. (3), March (2), April (6), and May (3). Evidently few successfully overwinter, if indeed they do not simply move through Southeast Louisiana to winter elsewhere. It goes without saying that any kingbird with yellow underparts should be carefully studied. Not only is there the possibility of Tropical/Couch's type kingbird, but Cassin's might occur, as it has in southwestern Louisiana. Western Kingbird, of course, has conspicuous white outer tail feathers (white outer web), but since these are sometimes obscure or missing, one should exercise caution. Expected dates are September 20 to April 10, with extremes of Aug. 9, 1965 in New Orleans (JK) and May 30, 1965 at the Bonnet Carre Spillway (OBM). The "out-of- season" records are June 9, 1988 on Breton Island (DM,RDP) and July..... EASTERN KINGBIRD (Tyrannus tyrannus) Common to very common summer resident Known locally as the "bee-martin", the Eastern Kingbird is the most familiar of the flycatchers of the area, breeding as close to human habitation in the city as the lakefront. In migration, flocks of 100 or more are not uncommon. There are no winter records. The only species with which it might be confused is Gray Kingbird, which is very rare in Louisiana. Expected dates of occurrence are March 25 to October 15, with extremes of Mar. 16, 1974 at Grand Isle (NN) and Nov. 25, 1965 at New Orleans (JK). GRAY KINGBIRD (Tyrannus dominicensis) Occasional vagrant in spring All but one of the nine records of this kingbird, which breeds from Dauphin Island to the east along the coast of Florida, have occurred during the spring, and six are May records. The possibility of nesting is a real one given the late May records, nesting as far east as Ship Island, MS?, and a summer record in 1988. The Gray Kingbird is much grayer than the Eastern Kingbird, with a dark "mask" or ear-patch, and a very large bill (so large that one is remined of Thick-billed Kingbird or even Loggerheaded Kingbird). The May 30, 1985 record was of a bird which briefly perched on the rigging of a boat 20 miles off the mouth of the Mississippi River. The records are: May 11, 1948, 32 miles off the mouth of the Miss. R. (GHL); May 3, 1954 at Grand Isle (GHL,RJN); Apr. 18, 1976 at Grand Isle (MM,NN); April 30, 1984 on Grand Terre Is. (NLN); May 9-13, 1984 near Grand Isle (NLN,BC,RJN,DM,RDP--photos); May 28, 1984 at Ft. Jackson (NLN,DM); May 30, 1985 20 miles off Southwest Pas (MM); ...summer 1988 on Grand Terre Is. (TP); May 26, 1991 at Grand Isle (CS,PW; GC,DM,MM,NN,RDP); spring 1994 (NLN)(JVR,DLD,SWC); May 3, 1995 at Grand Isle (RDP). The only fall record of a Gray Kingbird is of one seen on Nov. 7 at Venice (NN,RDP,GG) and recovered on Dec. 5 (BC, JK...--photos). SCISSOR-TAILED FLYCATCHER (Tyrannus forficatus) Rare vagrant, mostly in fall There are over 80 records of this beautiful flycatcher, mostly from October and November, although occasionally one or more may successfully overwinter. Of 64 records through 1970, 36 were from Oct.-Nov. and only 10 from December through February. Sometimes flocks of 20 or more individuals are found, usually near the coast. The earliest known record was of 10 at Kenner on Oct. 6, 1900, mentioned by Beyer (1900). A trip to Venice in fall will frequently yield one or more Scissor-tailed Flycatchers, and they have occurred on New Orleans and Venice Christmas Counts. There is at least one nesting record near the checklist area, in Tangipahoa Parish near Holton in June 1988 (Chris Brantley). The only bird with which this might be confused (except for tail-less individuals, which are usually only seen on the breeding grounds) is the Fork-tailed Flycatcher, which has not yet been seen in Louisiana but is a renowned vagrant. Expected dates are October 15 to April 1, with extreme dates of occurrence of Aug. 18, 1959 at New Orleans (SAG) and May 31, 1958 at Reserve (RJS,KS). Family Alaudidae LARKS HORNED LARK (Eremophila alpestris) Occasional in winter As the records below show, prior to 1982 there had been only three records of Horned Larks during a period of over 100 years and, indeed, none between 1895 and 1951. The 1982 records at New Orleans and Laplace came during a period of extensive snow cover (75%) in the middle U.S., which reached as far south as central Louisiana. The records of the following year came on the heels of an intense cold front which brought 14o temperatures to New Orleans. In general, one cannot expect to encounter Horned Larks except under such circumstances, i.e., heavy snow cover from north Louisiana into Arkansas. On the north shore of the lake, Horned Larks may be more nearly regular, but that remains to be seen. The last record given below is a dramatic exception to the pattern just described, which simply shows that with birds, anthing can happen. The records are: Jan. 6, 1879 at Mandeville (GEB--coll); Feb. 22, 1895 at Pearl River (HHP?--coll); Feb. 2, 1951 at Covington (CR); Jan. 14, 1982 at New Orleans (JR-- 2); Jan. 16, 1982 at Laplace (RJS,NLN--5); Jan. 17, 1982 at Laplace (MB,DM,RDP,JR-- 150); Dec. 25-26, 1983 at New Orleans (MM,NN); Jan. 1, 1984 at New Orleans (RDP); and Grand Isle (MM,RDP,GC). Family Hirundinidae SWALLOWS PURPLE MARTIN (Porgne subis) Common to very common or abundant summer resident The Purple Martin is arguably the best-loved bird of Louisiana, perhaps sharing honors with what some feel ought to be the state bird, the mockingbird (the Brown Pelican, which is the state bird, has the great virtue that its demise due to environmental pollution makes it an important symbol). Be that as it may, the Purple Martin is the earliest of all spring migrants, arriving in numbers by late February. By July martins are beginning to collect in large roosts. The most spectacular manifestation of this is huge roost at the foot of the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, which has been there for perhaps two decades. Current estimates of peak numbers range from 20,000 to 200,000. It is billed, somewhat hyperbolically, perhaps, as "the largest Purple Martin roost in the world". It may, indeed, be that, and in any case the publicity it has gotten has undoubtedly been felicitous. Almost every neighborhood has its martin houses, and anyone who has had an active martin house knows what pleasant neighbors they are. If one erects a martin house which has the correct properties (there are many sources of information) in February or March, he is likely to have martins nesting in his yard. Purple Martins are expected between about February 15 and October 20, with extremes of Jan. 26, 1963 (SAG) and Nov. 30, 1936 (TDB--coll), both at New Orleans. A recent early record was Feb. 4, 1995 at des Allemandes (PW). There are two winter records: Dec. 26, 1954 (JLD,TJH) and Dec. 27, 1956...., both at New Orleans, the latter being on the New Orleans CBC of that date. In general, winter records should be greeted with a great deal of skepticism. TREE SWALLOW (Tachycineta bicolor) Common to abundant winter resident The Tree Swallow is normally the only swallow to be seen in Southeast Louisiana in winter (but see Rough-winged Swallow), and its numbers are somtimes staggering, viz the estimate of one million on the 1978 Reserve Christmas Bird Count, Dec. 23, 1978. On New Orleans CBC's, numbers have ranged from zero (1968) to 11,276 (1960). There is some tendency in mid-winter for Tree Swallows to gather in huge aggregations, especially when feeding on seeds or berries (wax myrtle, for example) rather than insects. Beyer (1900) reported that Tree Swallows were sold abundantly in the markets of New Orleans. Expected dates are August 1 to May 10, with extreme dates of July 8, 1893 (GEB) and May 27, 1938 (TDB), both at New Orleans. There are two "out-of-season" records, June 17, 1958 at Reserve (RJS) and June 8, 1963 (RJS) at the Bonnet Carre Spillway. NORTHERN ROUGH-WINGED SWALLOW (Stelgidopteryx serripennis) Common to uncommon migrant, uncommon breeder north of Lake Pontchartrain, rare winter visitor The Rough-winged Swallow is one of four species which breed regularly in Southeast Louisiana and although no nest sites have been found, it is quite regular north of the lake, especially around gravel pits and other bodies of water, near where stream bank nesting is likely. Reports of summering Rough-winged Swallows in the vicinity of bluffs with what appear to be nest holes abound, and there is an April 1985 report of Rough-winged Swallows going in and out of such holes on the Tangipahoa River two miles above amite (Merle Mizelle). Rough-winged Swallows excavate burrows, but they also rodent holes, kingfisher burrows, and even nest under bridges (Ehrlich, et al, 1988). There are, in addition, well over a dozen winter records of this species, especially from the Bonnet Carre Spillway, but including a record of 200 on the New Orleans CBC on Dec. 27, 1956. Expected dates of migrants are April 1 to May 10 in spring, and August 1 to November 10 in fall. Extreme dates of occurrence are, in spring, Mar. 8, 1961 at New Orleans (SAG) and May 28, 1863 in Plaquemines Parish (fide HCO), and in fall, July 18, 1866 (GEB--coll) and Nov. 22, 1958 (SAG), both in New Orleans. BANK SWALLOW (Riparia riparia) Common to uncommon migrant Three species of swallows are seen primarily as migrants, this one, the Rough- winged, and the Cliff Swallows, The last two breed, at least sparingly, and so the Bank Swallow is the only exclusively migrant swallow in Southeast Louisiana. Although not usually as common as the previous species in migration, it can, nonetheless, by quite abundant at times. There are two out-of-season records, July 6, 1886 at New Orleans (fide HCO--collected), which Oberholser (1938) took as evidence of nesting, and July 5, 1959 at New Orleans (SAG). Expected dates are March 25 to May 15 and August 10 to October 15; the extreme dates of occurrence are, in spring, March 20, 1985 at New Orleans (fide HCO) and June 9, 1973 in St. Bernard Parish (MM--2); in fall they are Aug. 7, 1935 at New Orleans (TDB--coll) and Nov. 3, 1963 at the Bonnet Carre Spillway (RJS). CLIFF SWALLOW (Hirundo pyrrhonota) Rare to uncommon migrant, local nester Although the Cliff Swallow is a regular migrant, its number are usually quite small and so it is not often encountered in a given spring or fall. It is probably most likely to be seen in early fall, and the largest number recorded is 600 near Irish Bayou on Sep. 8, 1974 (MM,NN). The Cliff Swallow has nested under four bridges over the Middle Pearl and East Pearl River on U.S. highway 90 since at least the spring of 1981, when they were first located by Toby Bradshaw. This was the second known Louisiana nesting. A survey of bridges over the Middle Pearl that year yielded 41 nests and 81 individuals (RDP,DM,NN,MM). For additional historical details, see Purrington (1988). Although it is often difficult to ascertain how many nests are active, the maximum number recorded is 130, with 2-3 times that many adults. Currently Cliff Swallows also nest at the U.S. 90 bridge over Chef Menteur Pass (e.g., 150+ individuals on June 28, 1992 (NN,RDP)). Cliff Swallows are known to engage in brood parasitism (see Ehrlich, et al 1988). The expected dates for migrants are approximately April 1 to May 15 and August 15 to October 10; the average date of arrival at the U.S. 90 sites is March 25, with earliest dates of March 20 in 1994 (RDP). The latest ever date in spring is June 12, 1886 at Madisonville (GEB--coll) and the extreme fall dates are Aug. 2, 1935 at New Orleans (TDB--coll) and Nov. 24, 1961 at Triumph (SAG). CAVE SWALLOW (Hirundo fulva) Accidental Although it occurred in the context of a Cave Swallow range expansion in south Texas and records of vagrant Cave Swallows in the southeast U.S., the discovery of a Cave Swallow at the East Middle Pearl River bridge on U.S. 90 in St. Tammany Parish on .......(MM,NN) was electrifying. At least as interesting was the subsequent discovery, on May 8 of that same spring (RDP,GG,JH) that a pair of Cave Swallows were present, and, furthermore, that one was using a nest under the bridge. Two birds were observed flying together showing courtship-like behavior, and one bird was satisfactorily photographed (RDP). Finally, a young bird was seen an photographed which may have been a juvenile Cave Swallow (MM). There has been no further evidence of presence of Cave Swallows since spring 1988. BARN SWALLOW (Hirundo rustica) Common summer resident The Barn Swallow nests throughout the area, primarily under bridges and overpasses. Examples include the US 90 bridges over Chef Menteur Pass and the Middle and East Pearl Rivers, the I-10 bridge over the East Pearl, and many small bridges in St. Tammany, Washington, and probably other of the Florida Parishes. The Barn Swallow is also a very common migrant almost anywhere, especially on the coast, and, after the Purple Martin, is the most familiar swallow. There are three or four winter records. While expected dates of occurrence are April 1 to November 10, extreme dates are March 13 in 1983 (GS) and in 1988 (RDP), the latter at the US 90 bridges, and Dec. 1, 1974 at Reserve. The winter records, which might also include the Dec. 1, 1974 record just mentioned, are : Dec. 23, 1962 (fide SAG); Feb. 25-26 (SAG); Dec. 20, 1969 (SAG), all in New Orleans. Family Corviidae JAYS AND CROWS BLUE JAY (Cyanocitta cristata) Common resident Although to most observers the Blue Jay is a sedentary species, it is in fact quite migratory, moving from the northern part of its range southward for winter, and even "over-shooting" and moving out over the gulf. The result is that one may sometimes see large numbers of Blue Jays moving along the coast, and even flying toward shore from over the gulf. The permanent resident subspecies is C. c. cristata, and C. c. bromia is the wintering form. The influx of northern birds is apparently quite variable, witness the almost erratic character of the numbers recorded on New Orleans CBCs, which range from less than 1 to 7-8 birds per party-hour. Nesting begins in February, with young often fledged by late March. AMERICAN CROW (Corvus brachyrhyncos) Common to abundant resident While Fish Crow numbers have increased by a factor of 10 on New Orleans Christmas Bird Counts since 1960, the American or "Common" Crow has remained essentially unchanged in its numbers. While this crow is considerably larger than its cousin, the Fish Crow, identification should generally be based on call. FISH CROW (Corvus ossifragus) Common to abundant resident The Fish Crow is often found in huge concentrations on garbage dumps in winter, with a high of 19,510 recorded on a single New Orleans CBC (1980). Christmas Count totals have undergone a ten-fold increased since the early 1960's. Although resident in Southeast Louisiana, the Fish Crow withdraws from the coastal part of the area, and even largely from New Orleans, to breed in summer. Family Paridae CHICKADEES AND TITMICE CAROLINA CHICKADEE (Parus carolinensis) Common resident The Carolina Chickadee occurs, and breeds, wherever there are moderate-sized woodlands, from cypress swamp to bottomland to parks, e.g., City Park. The numbers of chickadees on New Orleans CBCs declined during the 1960's, reaching a minimum in the early 1970s (conceivably because of the 1962 freeze?), but have increased since about 1972. Both this and the Tufted Timous, below, are hole-nesting birds. Chickadees remain paired throughout the year. In fall and winter it is often useful to listen for and try to attract by squeaking or "pishing" any chickadees within hearing, since they are one of the most vocal members of mixed-species foraging flocks which may contain migrating warblers in fall, and wintering warblers, etc. in that season. TUFTED TITMOUSE (Parus bicolor) Uncommon to locally common resident The distribution of the Tufted Titmouse is somewhat spotty and irregular, for reasons that seem elusive. In some places, such as in the Sarpy Swamp and at the Tulane Riverside/Coast Guard area at English Turn, they are as common as Carolina Chickadees, and they are often more common in bottomland habitat than their congener. But in many other more nearly residential areas, such as City Park, for example, or in New Orleans East, they are almost absent. Indeed records from City Park and Lake Vista during the winter of 1984-85 were extraordinary and coincided with an unprecedented invasion of coastal southwest Louisiana; there is a more recent record from City Park: August 30, 1994 (RDP). Titmouse numbers reached a deep minimum in about 1973 (New Orleans CBC data) but have increased since the late 1970's. The song is a whistled "peter-peter-peter". Family Sittidae NUTHATCHES RED-BREASTED NUTCHATCH (Sitta canadensis) Erratic and irruptive winter visitor Very erratic and irregular in its occurrence, this species is quite common (or no worse than uncommon) in some winters and absent in others. Apparently its periodic invasions result from failure of the cone seed crope in the boreal forests. Although Red- breasted Nuthatches may be found anywhere in an invasion year, the pines near the lakefront and on Scout Island in City Park are perhaps the best place to look for them. Their "typical" nuthatch "yank" makes them relatively easy to find. Expected dates are October 5 to April 5, and extreme dates of occurrence are Sep. 19, 1981 at New Orleans (JR) and April 30, 1978 in Metairie (SP). WHITE-BREASTED NUTHATCH (Sitta carolinensis) Rare resident? Surprisingly little is known of the occurrence of the White-breasted Nuthatch in the Florida Parishes, at the northern edge of the checklist area. This writer has found it on one occasion near Fluker in northwest Tangipahoa Parish and it has been found near Hackley in Washington Parish. There are, however, no recent records, so that much needs to be done to clarify its status in this area. It does not, however, occur south of Lake Pontchartrain or, apparently, even in pine flat habitat north of the lake, preferring instead pine uplands with relatively mature mixed pine-deciduous woods. Note, however, that the records in the checklist area proper are from areas not far north of the lake, though the most recent was nearly 90 years ago: July 10 and 23, 1888 at Covington (fide HCO); Aug. 21, 1890 on Bedico Cr. (fide HCO); in 1891 at Madisonville (GEB-- breeding); and Oct. 18, 1903 at Covington (HHK). BROWN-HEADED NUTHATCH (Sitta pusilla) Common resident in pine flats The Brown-headed Nuthatch is a common and conspicuously gregarious resident of open pine woods north of Lake Pontchartrain, southeast to the White Kitchen area of St. Tammany Parish. Family Certhiidae CREEPERS BROWN CREEPER (Certhia americana) Uncommon (to rare) winter resident Although the Brown Creeper is, in principle, one of the birds which make up the winter foraging flocks, it has declined in numbers during the past 25 years and is now encountered at best a few times in a winter season. The Brown Creeper does fluctuate significantly in numbers, so that in some years it is not difficult to find and, indeed, it sometimes seen in sizeable numbers when the first birds arrive in early to mid October. A good ear can recognize its high pitched call, which resembles that of the Golden- crowned Kinglet. Expected dates are October 10 to March 25, with extremes of Sep. 19, 1983 at New Orleans and Apr. 4, 1970...... Family Troglogyttidae WRENS CAROLINA WREN (Thryothorus ludovicianus) Common to very common resident Although few birds are more characteristic of the south than the Carolina Wren, the casual observer will rarely see it because of its secretive habits. Far more frequently, its "tea-kettle, tea-kettle" song will be heard, disembodied. It is a common resident anywhere there is adequate cover and is not uncommon in residential neighborhoods, especially near the periphery of the city. The Carolina Wren is one of two resident species of wren, along with the far less familiar Marsh Wren. Three species regularly winter: the House, Winter, and Sedge Wrens, while Bewick's Wren is an occasional visitor. The numbers of Carolina Wrens on New Orleans CBCs have been stable since 1960. BEWICK'S WREN (Thryomanes bewickii) Occasional in winter Anyone who travels to the southwestern United Staes is familiar with this noisy and conspicuous wren, but it breeds, uncommonly, in the east-central part of the country as well. Although the assumption is that Bewick's Wrens in Louisiana are western vagrants, especially since they breed in east Texas, there are no data to back up that conclusion. If from the northern and easter populations, they would be expected to reflected the declines which have been experienced there, but the numbers are so small that no statistically significant conclusions can be made. In spite of the resemblance to the Carolina Wren, identification poses no problem. Basically Bewick's Wren lacks the rich tones of the Carolina wren, being drab brown on the back and dirty white on the breast, and having a long "floppy" black-striped tail. The call is distinctive but not easily described, and the song is never heard. There are at least 17 records spanning the period Oct. 17 to Feb. 24, plus a very "early" August record. The records are: Jan. 6-8, 1894 in New Orleans (HHK); Aug. 28, 1894 at New Orleans (HHK); Oct. 28, 1908 at Slidell (AHH); Dec. 23, 1917 at New Orleans (HHK); Feb. 24, 1918 at Lacombe (HHK); Nov. 23-24, 1956 at Dalcour (SAG); Nov. 25, 1956 at New Orleans (SAG); Nov. 9-11 and 23, 1957 at Ft. Pike (SAG); Oct .19-21, 1968 at New Orleans (DS,RDP); Jan. 12, 1969 at New Orleans (RDP); Nov. 27, 1976 at Laplace (RJS,MW); Oct. 24, 1978-Jan. 3, 1979 at New Orleans (JR, et al); Oct. 17, 1982 at New Orleans (NN); Dec. 26, 1982 at New Orleans; ; Dec. 26, 1982 at New Orleans (BC); Oct. 13, 1983 at New Orleans (NN); and Dec. 26, 1983 at New Orleans (NN). HOUSE WREN (Troglodytes aedon) Common winter resident In winter the House Wren can be found in any brushy area, or spot with brushy understory. It has a variety of vocalizations which may confuse the novice. It sometimes sings in winter, a gurgling song which sounds something like a tape being rewound (similar to the song of the Marsh Wren). It has a standard wren chatter or "chur" which resembles the Carolina Wren, and it has a nasal, almost mewing sound which could be confused with a Catbird. As measured by New Orleans CBCs, House Wren populations declined during the early 1960s to mid 1970s, but have since increased. Expected dates are October 5 to April 20, while extreme dates are Sep. 12, 1964 and Apr. 23 in 1923 (HHK) and 1936 at New Orleans (TDB). WINTER WREN (Troglodytes troglodytes) Uncommon winter resident The Winter Wren is often overlooked by those unfamiliar with its distinctive call note (much like that of a Song Sparrow, but doubled or trebled), but can, in fact, be quite common; it is far more often heared than seen. Somewhat surprisingly, it seems most common in and near palmetto thickets in cypress-tupelo swamp habitat. The maximum number recorded is 21, in the Sarpy Swamp on Dec. 23, 1978 (RDP). Expected dates of occurrence are October 25 to March 25, while extreme dates are Oct. 13, 1977 (JR) and Apr. 7, 1894 (GEB), both at New Orleans. SEDGE WREN (Cisothorus platensis) Common winter resident in short grass marsh Unlike its relative the Marsh Wren, which prefers cattail marshes or brackish marsh vegetation, the Sedge Wren (formerly the Short-billed Marsh Wren) is a denizen of damp fields, especially broom-sedge (Andropogon virginicus) fields and short-grass marsh. It is often flushed in the same fields which produce Henslow's or Leconte's Sparrows. The call is a distinctive, soft, "chup" and occasionally, in late spring, the Sedge Wren may be heard giving its staccato song. Expected dates are approximately October 15 to April 15, and extreme dates of occurrence are Sep. 19, 1981 at New Orleans (JR) and Apr. 22, 1984 at Grand Isle (NN,DM,MM). MARSH WREN (Cisothorus palustris) Common to uncommon resident The Marsh Wren (formerly called the Long-billed Marsh Wren) is a relativly common breeding bird of reed, cattails, and dense shrubby marsh vegetation (such as black mangrove) in the coastal marsh, though it probably can be found anywhere around the shores of Lake Pontchartrain. It is quite conspicuous if one knows its song, which sounds somewhat like a tape being re-wound. Its call is a strong "tick!", often repeated, quite different from the rich, soft chip of the Sedge Wren. A good place to find it is along the lower end of Fourchon Rd. (La 3090) in Lafourche Parish. The species is not entirely sedenary and according to Oberholser (1938), C. p. marianae and C. p. thryophilus are the resident subspecies, while C. p. iliacus is a winter visitor. ROCK WREN (Salpinctes obsoletus) Accidental The first record of the Rock Wren for Louisiana and the only one for Southeast Louisiana was of one present at Seabrook Bridge on Lakeshore Drive in New Orleans from Dec. 21, 1983 (MM), to Feb. 4, 1984, when it was collected (specimen to LSUMNS). It was seen by dozens of observers and photographed (RDP, among others; Amer. Birds...). There are now at least two other records for Louisiana. Family Musccicapidae GOLDEN-CROWNED KINGLET (Regulus satraps) Uncomon, somewhat erratic winter resident The Golden-crowned Kinglet is erratic in its occurrence, being quite common in some years and rare in others. Recently it has been somewhat more regular, and less erratic, compared to the long-term trends, which showed broad peaks 8-11 years apart (1954, 1959-62, 1969-70, 1979-81, 1986-87. The Golden-crowned Kinglet is considerably less obvious than its relative, the Ruby-crowned Kinglet, and is usually located by its distinctive and thin high-pitched call which is easily learned. Expected dates are October 20 to March 25, with extreme dates of occurrence of Oct. 7, 1953 at New Orleans (HBC) and April 1, 1980 at Venice (NN). RUBY-CROWNED KINGLET (Regulus calendula) Very common winter resident Few birds are more characteristic of the winter landscape in south Louisiana than the this diminutive bird. George Lowery's use of the term "ubiquitous" is well-chosen, for it may be found virtually anywhere in the area in large numbers, excepting mainly open marsh. Its repeated chatter or "tit-tit-tit...." call is one of the first calls learned by novice birders and occasionally it is heard singing, more often in spring, but actually anytime. The Ruby-crowned Kinglet can be expected between October 5 and Ajpril 15, but has occurred as early as Sep. 17, 1956 (SAG) and as late as May 9, 1980 (NN,JR), both at New Orleans. BLUE-GRAY GNATCATCHER (Polioptila caerulea) Uncommon resident and common migrant throughout Although the Blue-gray Gnatcatcher is present in the area throughout the year, it should not be thought of as merely a permanent resident. It breeds rather uncommonly in fairly deep woods, and woodland edges, including bottomland, it is a standard, if again uncommon, winter visitor, and during migration it is sometimes quite common. Apparently there is a resident population, whose size is indicated by the number of breding birds, and winter numbers are swelled by gnatcatchers which move into the area from the north. This is a common phenomenon, but because the Blue-gray Gnatcatcher is a bit uncommon, the pattern seems somewhat more irregular than normal; that is, there seem to be periods when few, or no, gnatcatchers are present. Migration takes place mainly from mid-March to late April and in mid-August through October. Family Turdidae THRUSHES NORTHERN WHEATEAR (Oenanthe oenanthe) Accidental Prior to the fall of 1991 there was one record of the Northern Wheatear for Louisiana, of an individual collected at New Orleans on Sep. 12, 1888 (GEB). The wheatear occurs only in the arctic (Alaska, Greenland, etc.) and might not be expected ever to recur, although there is a recent record from Dauphin Island, Alabama. Thus it was a complete surprise when one was discovered at New Orleans on Oct. 23, 1991 by Jennifer Coulson. The bird was present for three days (GS,AS), was seen by dozens of observers, and was thoroughly photographed. There has seen been another occurrence in Louisiana, in .....Parish in 1992? EASTERN BLUEBIRD (Sialia sialis) Moderately common resident north of Lake Pontchartrain Although Eastern Bluebirds do occur south of the lake, especially in winter, in Southeast Louisiana they are found mostly in the mixed pine-deciduous habitat in the Florida parishes. The description in the National Geographic Birds of North America is hard to improve on: "Call note is a musical, rising, chur-lee, extended in song to chur- chur-lee-chur-lee." The call is often given in flight. Bluebirds like to sit on wires, where they are easily recognized by their plump, thrush-like silhouette. Outside the breeding season, bluebirds have been seen at Chalmette, Venice, and Golden Meadow, among other places. Patient coverage on New Orleans Christmas Counts usually yields one or more, often several. It is perhaps worth adding that Mountain and Western Bluebird have occurred in southwestern Louisiana. VEERY (Catharus fuscescens) Common to uncommon spring and fall migrant The Veery is usually less common in migration than either of the other migrant Catharus thrushes, the Gray-cheeked and Swainson's Thrushes, but that is not always the case, and in any event, it is relatively common. It is also relatively easy to identify, because of the rufous coloration of its upperparts and its almost unspotted breast, though the western form might be confused with the Gray-cheeked Thrush. The Veery is often heard overhead at night in spring and fall migration. The expected dates are April 20 to May 20 in spring, and September 15 to October 15 in fall. In spring Veerys have been recorded between Apr. 3, 1960 at Grand Isle (SAG) and May 26, 1979... (RDP), while in fall the extremes are Aug. 31, 1962 (SAG) and Oct. 19, 1912 (HHK), both at New Orleans. GRAY-CHEEKED THRUSH (Catharus minimus) Common migrant in spring and fall The migrant Catharus thrushes are somtimes prodigiously abundant in migration and yet in some seasons are nearly absent. The difference is probably the weather patterns which ground sping and fall migrants. Usually the Gray-cheedked Thrush is second in abundance to Swainson's Thrush, but on occasion it out-numbers all others put together. The Gray-cheeked Thrush can usually be distinguished from Swainson's by the lack of a buffy face (lores) and eyering. Usually, the Gray-cheeked is a less warm color on the upperparts and has less buffy coloration on the upper breast. Expected dates are, in spring, April 15 to May 15, and in fall, September 20 to October 15. Spring extemes are March 27, 1897 at New Orleans (fide HCO) and May 26 in 1979 at New Orleans (JR) and in 1985 at Grand Isle (RDP). Extreme dates of occurrence in fall are Sep. 17, 1982 (SAG ) and Nov. 1, 1980 (JR), both at New Orleans. SWAINSON'S THRUSH (Catharus ustulatus) Common to abundant migrant Generally this species is the most common of the migrant thrushes; it is also the one most likely to be heard singing during spring migration. The song is a set of rising, flute-like notes, usually given soto voce during migration. On occasion, these thrushes are present by the hundreds in the coastal woods. There are three startling winter records, both on Venice Christmas Counts, and in each case great care was taken to make sure that the bird was not a Hermit Thrush: Dec. 20, 1971 (RDP), Dec. 31, 1986 (DM), and Jan. 2, 1994 (ASt,RDP). The expected dates for spring migrants are April 10 to May 15 and fall migrants are expected between September 15 and October 15. The extremes in spring migration are Apr. 2 in 1895 at New Orleans (fide HCO) and in 1989 in Jefferson Parish (AA-- coll), and May 29, 1988 at Grand Isle (RDP). In fall they are Sep. 11, 1983 at Grand Isle (DM,NN,MM) and Nov. 16, 1935 at New Orleans (TDB). The latter record is so late as to suggest wintering. HERMIT THRUSH (Catharus guttatus) Uncommon winter resident Although the Hermit Thrush is generally an uncommon visitor in the winter, it varys in numbers substantially from one year to the next, and is sometimes rather common, as during the winter of 1990-91. Although it is easily "squeaked up" and as a result should not be terribly hard to find, one will record many more if he knows its characteristic call note, which is a soft Red-wing-like "chuck." There is also a rarely heard whistle, or piping sound, which is perhaps related to its song or its nocturnal flight call. This writer has never heard a Hermit Thrush sing in Louisiana, even in early spring. Numbers on the New Orleans Christmas Counts have declined since the early 1970s compared to a peak in the 1960s. Normally Hermit Thrushes barely overlap the migrant Catharus thrushes, if at all, as can be seen by looking at the expected dates, but should there be any doubt, the reddish tail of the Hermit Thrush is definitive. Expected dates of occurrence are October 15 to April 10; extreme dates are Sep. 25, 1894 (AA) and May 15, 1915 (HHK), both at New Orleans. WOOD THRUSH (Hylochichla mustelina) Fairly common summer resident, mostly north of Lake Pontchartrain Although the Wood Thrush has very occasionally been heard singing south of the lake during the breeding season, it is a typically breeding bird of the creek and river bottomland hardwood habitat which abounds in the Florida parishes. Its beautiful, flute- like song carries well, and it is far more often heard in summer than seen. On migration, however, it is sometimes the commonest thrush, and up to 25 or 50 might be seen in the coastal woods at Grand Isle under optimum conditions. Beyer (1900) says they were "shot in large numbers for the New Orleans markets." Calls include a very distinctive "popping" sort of noise, usually given singly. As a migrant, which is what the Wood Thrush is below the lake, the expected dates in spring are April 1 to May 10 and in fall October 10 to November 15. The latter means that the Wood Thrush hardly overlaps the migrant Catharus thrushes in fall. In spring the Wood Thrush has been seen between March 25 in 1900 at New Orleans (AA) and in 1980 at Venice (NN), and June 4, 1966 at New Orleans. The extremes for fall migration are Sep. 18, 1981 (NN) and Nov. 29, 1968 (WW), both at New Orleans. Again, the latter record is suggestive of wintering. There are a minimum of eight winter records: Feb. 14, 1961 ....(CLE); Dec. 24, 1969 at Triumph (RDP,SAG); Jan. 28, 1971 at New Orleans (RDP); Dec. 29, 1973 at Reserve (fide RJS); Dec. 14, 1980 at New Orleans (JR); Jan. 1, 1988 at Grand Isle (...);......,; Nov. 28, 1992 at New Orleans (DM). AMERICAN ROBIN (Turdus migratoius) Abundant winter resident, breeding locally The winter population, which is mostly T. m. migratorius, but including T. m. nigrideus as well, begins arriving at the end of September or in early October, and is gone by about May 1. The resident subspecies is T. m. achrusterus . The robin breeds fairly commonly in New Orleans parks and similar situations (the Tulane campus, for example). Numbers recorded on New Orleans Christmas Counts are surprisingly variable, ranging from 1 up to 20-100 birds per party-hour. VARIED THRUSH (Ixoreus naevius) Accidental vagrant The only record of this western thrush is of one seen briefly at Grand Isle on the rather unusual date of Mar. 5, 1992 (NN,DM). There are three? other records for Louisiana. Family Mimidae MIMIC THRUSHES GRAY CATBIRD (Dumetella carolinensis) Common to abundant migrant, uncommon winter visitor, occasional and local breeder The Gray Catbirds inhabits dense understory, thickets, etc, in winter as well as on migration. In the latter situation, it is often the most common migrant. Indeed, the total number of catbirds which move through the coastal woods in migration is enormous. In winter, many more are heard than seen, the clue to their presence being the distinctive, somewhat mewing-like call which gives them their name. Prior to the summer of 1985, the only evidence of breeding was a June 27, 1933 record by Oberholser from Honey Island. On July 21, 1985, however, a newly fledged catbird was seen at Grand Isle (RDP,NN), with one or more adults. This followed several sightings of apparently territorial catbirds (up to four?) from June 22 (AS,GS,JS) on. The next summer, two adults were seen there on June 21 (RDP) and on August 2, two adults and one recently fledged young were observed (RDP,DM). Since then, catbirds have been seen in the same woods on Grand Isle in every summer, the evidence suggesting at least two pairs. There was some evidence of nesting during the summer of 1994, based on sightings in late August (28th--RDP) and early September (PY). As a migrant expected dates are September 20 to May 15, with extremes of Sep. 1, 1985 (CL) and May 21, 1986 (AKF), both at New Orleans. NORTHERN MOCKINGBIRD (Mimus ployglottos) Very common resident There is little to be said about this familiar bird, loverd by all, except perhaps on those spring and summer nights when it sings all night long, that has not already been written. Although there is some evidence of a decline in numbers of mockingbirds on New Orleans CBCs, the data are still too sparse to permit a definite conclusion. During spring and summer, mockingbirds feed largely on insects, including beetles, ants,wasps, and grasshoppers, while in fall and winter much of the diet is plant material, including hackberry, virginian creeper, greenbriar, etc. (Martin, et al, 1951). SAGE THRASHER (Oreoscoptes montanus) Occasional vagrant There are three records of this small western thrasher, which breeds no closer than New Mexcio. The first was Dec. 1, 1957 at Venice (SAG,JPG), and the second was found in the Chandeleur Islands on the improbable date of June 26,....(LEW,MM). The most recent record was of a bird seen by at least a dozen observers on UNO's east campus on Oct. 27-28, 1979 (JR,m.ob., photos--RDP). One photograph appeared in American Birds 34 (1980) 172. BROWN THRASHER (Toxostoma rufum) Common winter resident, breeds locally and sparingly south of the lake, more common in breeding season in Florida Parishes Although the Brown Thrasher breeds regularly in City Park and similar places, and probably on occasion all the way to the coast, it is primarily a winter resident south of the lake, but a permanent resident north of it. Wintering birds arrive in mid to late September and by mid May only the nestiing birds remain. There has been a steady decline from the early 1960s to the late 1970s on New Orleans CBCs, although a recent recovery is possible. The song resembles that of the mockingbird, but is somewhat "wiry- er" and much less diverse. It might be added that the Curve-billed Thrasher, which breeds as near the region as west Texas, has occurred in southwest Louisiana on several...occasions. Family Motacillidae PIPITS WATER PIPIT (Anthus spinoleeta) Uncommon to sometimes common winter resident Based on anecdotal evidecne, the Water Pipit seems to be much less common than a decade or two ago, although habitat changes may account, in part, for that impression. They are partial to short grass fields and levees, and are frequently noted simply as they fly by in small, osciallating flocks, giving their obvious "pip-it" call. Garbage dumps turn out to be excellent places to find them. Expected dates of occurrence for Water Pipits are October 20 to April 15, but they have been recorded betwen Oct. 4, 1957 (SAG) and May 14, 1959 (JK), both at New Orleans. There is also a June 10, 1895 record of a bird collected in New Orleans (HHK). SPRAGUE'S PIPIT (Anthus spragueii) Rare winter visitor Probably the only place where Sprague's Pipit can be found regularly in winter is in the Bonnet Carre Spillway, mostly near the river end, although careful searching elsewhere, in proper habit (short to angle-deep, weedy grass--not the extremely short grass habitat of the Water Pipit) will occasionally meet with success. Ther are a few records from the east campus of UNO, and a record from the lower coast of Algiers. The call is a loud and very distinctive "kleep!", which a bird will give when flushed, and may continue to give as it climbs. Expected dates are November 1 to about April 1, and extreme dates of occurrence are Oct. 22, 1961 (SAG) and April 11, 1894 (AA), both at New Orleans. Family Bombycillidae WAXWINGS CEDAR WAXWING (Bombycilla cedrorum) Common winter resident The familiar Cedar Waxwing is often hard to find even as late as Christmas, but by late Febrary and March is usually very conspicuous, as it feeds on pyrocantha,, hackberry, and cherry laurel berries. It flies about in flocks of 15-30 or so birds, advertising itself by its high-pitched whistles; it is especially conspicuous in late February and March, when they are sometimes quite numerous. This late-winter abundance may be due to an influx of birds from the north, but more likely a function of changing food supplies. The Cedar Waxwing is the very latest of the wintering passerine species to depart, often lingering until after May 20. Expected dates are November 20 to May 10, with extremes of Oct. 8, 1966 at New Orleans (RDP) and June 11, 1958 at Reserve (RJS). Beyer (1900) found it as late as June 3 at Madisonville. LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE (Lanius ludovicianus) Common resident Although Loggerhead Shrikes have declined dramattically in numbers in the northeastern U.S., their numbers have shown no such decline here, and in fact have held constant since the 1960s on New Orleans Christmas Bird Counts. This is the familiar "butcher-bird" of rural, levee, and open park-like habitat. It has a variety of distincitive vocalizations which are difficult to describe. Family Sturnidae STARLINGS EUROPEAN STARLING (Sturnus vulgaris) Abundant resident Only rarely does one take the liberty of wishing that a particular bird did not occur on the list of the birds of Southeast Louisiana, or the state, but this is one of them. Although starlings do consume large quantities of (presumably) undersiable insects, it is a serious nuisance to urban dwellers and fruit and vegetable growers, and threatens populations of woodpeckers, bluebirds, purple martins, and other hole-nesters. This introduced species from Europe--introduced in New York in 1890-91--was first recorded in the areas around 1907, and the f irst specimen was taken Jan. 31, 1926 in Jefferson Parish. Family Vireonidae VIREOS WHITE-EYED VIREO (Vireo griseus) Common summer resident, uncommon winter resident The White-eyed Vireo breeds commonly in extensive woodland and bottomland habitat. Because of the frequency of wintering, it is unprofitable to try to give arrival dates for the summering population, but they may be expected to arrive around March 10 and depart in mid November. Most White-eyed Vireos winter in central America, south to Honduras, so that the winter population is considerably reduced. BELL'S VIREO (Vireo belli) Occasional to accidental in winter There are five records of this small, mostly western vireo, which continues to breed sparingly in northwest Louisiana (and Arkansas, etc.) Bell's Vireo is not a well- marked bird and confusion is possible with Ruby-crowned Kinglet and possibly even White-eyed Vireo. Its spectacles mark it as a vireo, and its bill is a typical vireo bill, though somewhat diminutive in this small bird. The birds from the interior of the U.S. are usually brighter and yellower than those from the west. Bell's Vireo has a vireo-like scolding call and its song is a series of wiry, ascending notes. The records are: Jan. 17, 1959 at Reserve (RFC--coll); Nov. 15, 1969 at Reserve (RJS); Dec. 30, 1981 at Venice (SAG,NN,NLN); Dec. 27, 1987-Jan. 1, 1988 at New Orleans (BC;DM,RDP;MM); Jan. 3, 1993 at Venice (KVR,.....). SOLITARY VIREO (Vireo solitarius) Uncommon to common winter visitor Solitary Vireos are often members of the mixed-species foraging flocks which roam winter woodlands, so if one can locate a kinglet or two, or a chickadee, he can often attract a flock which will contain one or more Solitary Vireos. This species has a distinctive scolding call which is worth learning, and very occasionally sings in winter. Its song resembles that of the Red-eyed Vireo, but is somewhat thinner, or sweeter. Those who welcome a challenge should look for the Plumbeous Vireo (Vireo plumbeus) , the rocky mountain form, newly raised to a species. Although no real attempt will be made to describe it here, it shows less contrast between cap and back and has little yellow on its sides. Its song is noticeable different, as well. The subspecies which occurs in the Cascades and Sierra Nevada, V. s. cassini, may also become a new species. The expected dates of occurrence are November 1 to April 15, with extremes of Aug. 1, 1893 (GEB) and May 2, 1985 (NN), both at New Orleans. The 1893 record is clearly "many standard deviations" from the expected date and perhaps should simply be considered as anomalous. YELLOW-THROATED VIREO (Vireo flavifrons) Fairly common summer resident north of Lake Pontchartrain Although there is at least one record of a singing male Yellow-throated Vireo south of the lake in breeding season [June 11, 1982 at Laffite NP (RDP,JR,DM,NN)], it should be regarded strictly as a migrant south of the lake and a summer resident of the pine flats of the Florida parishes. The distinctive song has been characterized as being like a Red-eyed Vireo with a "southern drawl," a description which works, this species having a somewhat "wheezier" or "buzzier", and perhaps slightly slower, song than the Red-eye. The Yellow-throated Vireo is one of the very earliest spring migrants, often arriving in the first week of March. The expected dates are March 15 to May 10 and September 10 to October 1, as a migrant. The extremes are, in spring, March 2, 1870 at the Rigolets (HHK--coll) and May 29, 1913 at New Orleans (HHK), while in fall the earliest record is Aug. 4, 1937 (TDB) and the latest NOv. 4, 1984 (PW), both at New Orleans. There is one astonishing winter record of this species which winters from southern Mexico to Columbia, of a bird carefully described at Grand Isle on Jan. 2, 1984 at Grand Isle (GS). WARBLING VIREO (Vireo gilvus) Very uncommon to almost rare migrant Although the Warbling Vireo is never common, it sometimes approaches that in early October, when both it and the next species are migrating. In spring, it is mostly like to be seen in late April to mid May. Young Warbling Vireos in fall may have considerable yellow below (except the throat) so that care should be exercised in distinguishing this from the Philadelpha Vireo. The key to identification is in the generally whitish underparts and the rather different face pattern, with the Philadephia having dark lores, giving it a very strong black line through the eye (see, for example, Kaufman 1990, p. 226). Kopman recorded the Warbling Vireo as a summer resident, but did not publish any supporting data. Expected dates for spring migrants are April 10 to May 5 and fall migrants are expected between September 25 and November 1. In spring Warbling Vireos have been seen between March 27, 1897 at New Orleans (fide HCO) and May 23, 1976 at Ft. PIke. In fall the extremes are Sep. 14, 1960 at New Orleans and Nov. 24, 1961 at Venice, both SAG. There is one winter record, of a bird collected at Ft. Jackson on Feb....., 1994 (DLD,SWC), probably the only winter specimen for the U.S. PHILADELPHIA VIREO (Vireo philadelphicus) Uncommon spring migrant, occasionally common fall migrant The Philadelphia Vireo can usually be recognized by its combination of yellow underparts (including throat) and black lores. It is usually seen in late spring, when it often is heard singing, and in early October. Its song very much resembles that of the Red-eyed Vireo, but is thinner. Given that the Philadelphia Vireo now breeds no nearer than the Great Lakes, it is quite odd that Kopman (1904) reported it in late July 1893 at Convent, and abundant there on August 2, and that Beyer (1900) records Philadelphia Vireo as have been seen at Hester, in St. James Parish, on Aug. 2 (HLB). There also seems to be an Aug. 2, 1893 record from Covington (HHK). It seems likely that there is some confusion involved. Witnering in southern Central America, it is not to be expected in winter. Expected dates are April 20 to May and September 25 to October 25. Extreme dates are, in spring, May 12, 1974 at New Orleans (MM,NN), and in fall, Sep. 13, 1964 at New Orleans (SAG) and Nov. 12, 1968 at Venice (KPA). RED-EYED VIREO (Vireo olivaceous) Very common summer resident, often abundant migrant The Red-eyed Vireo is a common breeder in deep woods over the area, especially in bottomland habitat. It will rarely be found south of Lake Pontchartrain in breeding season. It is one of the more common spring and fall migrants, with numbers easily reaching 100+ under "fall-out" conditions; it often dominates migration from late March to late May. There is one winter record, Jan. 3, 1965 at Venice (MM). The Red-eyed Vireo winters from Columbia and Venezuela south, including the Amazon basin. Expected dates are March 25 to October 10, with extremes of March 16, 1985 at Grand Isle (RDP,NN) and Nov. 3, 1985 at New Orleans (AS). BLACK-WHISKERED VIREO (Vireo altiloquus) Casual migrant, possibly occasionally nesting Although the Black-whiskered Vireo was not recorded before 1959, there are now over 25 records spanning the period March 18 to May 22 in spring and Aug. 17 to Nov. 6 in fall. Of the records at hand, 11 have been in spring migration, 4 in fall migration, and the remainder in summer, so that one must consider Black-whiskered Vireos considerably more likely in spring than fall. Although traditionally the Black-whiskered Vireo does not breed much nearer Southeast Louisiana than peninsular Florida, there are records from the summer of 1971 at Delta NWR and from 1985, 1988?, 1990?, and 1992 on Grand Isle, which are suggestive of nesting. In the summer of 1971, on June 19 and July 4, singing Black-whiskered Vireos were seen at Delta refuge. In 1985, a singing male, and possibly a pair, were found at Grand Isle on June 22 (AS,GS,JS, also RDP) and June 23 (RDP), while in 1990, Black-whiskered Vireos were first seen on ...(AS,GS), and July 8-22 (DM,GC,RDP) and Aug. 12 (DM,RDP), in the latter case two were seen behaving as though young were being fed. There was another Grand Isle record the same summer on a different part of the island (TP). The other summer records are July 14 (MM,RDP,GG) and July 26 (NN,RDP,GG), 1992. The point has finally been reached, it seems, where it is no longer possible to list all records of Black-whiskered Vireo. The earliest records, however, were: Aug. 29, 1959 at New Orleans (SAG,MEL); Nov. 6, 1960 at New Orleans (SAG); March 18, 1961 at Grand Isle (SAG--coll); Apri. 27, 1963 at Grand Isle (SAG--coll); and Aug. 17, 1963 at New Orleans (SAG,AWP). There are at least 16 records since 1963, including, recently, May 18, 1988 at Grand Isle (DM,NN), and Aug. 17, 1988 at Grand Isle (DM,AS,GS), plus the spring 1990....; June 14, 1992 at Grand Isle (MM,RDP,GG). Family Emberizidae WOOD WARBLERS, TANAGERS, GROSBEAKS, SPARROWS, BLACKBIRDS, ORIOLES BACHMAN'S WARBLER (Vermivora bachmanii) Formerly (EXTINCT?) It is entirely possible, even likely, that Bachman's Warbler (pronounced "back- man", after the Rev. John Bachman of Charleston, SC) is now extinct, although occaional sightings are still reported (and there is, of course, a recent record from Cuba). In Louisiana these are all too frequently of females, which are not easy to identify, although to be fair, they have generally been on dates when the bulk of the individuals migrating would be females, i.e., in late spring. Although there is no evidence that Bachman's Warbler ever bred in Southeast Louisiana, there is much excellent swamp habitat in which it might have, and certainly many moved through the area in spring as late as the 1890s (see below). Remsen has recently suggested (as had Meanley earlier) that Bachman's Warbler may have been a "bamboo specialist", and has vanished as the formerly extensive canebrakes have disappeared. Gailbraith, who was from Hoboken, N.J., was collecting birds for the millinery trade when he obtained the records below, which were the first U.S. records for over half a century. A useful article on plumage variation in specimens of Bachman's Warblers is Hamel and Gauthreaux (1982). It is interesting that Audubon's plate of Bachman's Warbler also includes a specimen of the plant Franklinia alatamaha; neither species, the bird or the plant, certainly exists in the wild. No certain record exists for Louisiana since 1925. The records span the period Feb. 27 to May 4, making it one of the earliest migrants, basically ariving at the same time as the Parula Warbler. The records are: spring 1886 on the edge of Lake Pontchartrain (C.S. Galbraith, fide G.N. Lawrence,Auk, Jan. 1887); March 29, 1887 at Mandeville (Galbraith, fide Lawrence); March 2-20 1988 at Mandeville (Galbraith, fide HCO--31 collected, all males!); Feb. 27, March 6,9,12,13,14, 1981 at Mandeville (Galbraith--coll); May 9, 1903 at Lobdell (AA); April 4, 1925 at Grand Isle (ESH--2 males, coll). BLUE-WINGED WARBLER (Vermivora pinus) Uncommon to sometimes common migrant The Blue-winged Warbler, which is easily distinguished by the black line through the eye, is sometimes quite common in the first week of April or so; at that season it occasional gives its buzzy song. There is a Nov. 29, 1963 record of a bird collected at Boothville (SAG) which may or may not have been of a wintering bird. Blue-winged Warblers breed as near to the region as the Ozarks and the Appalachians and winter from southern Mexico to Panama. Expected dates for spring migrants are April 5 to May 1, while in fall expected dates are August 20 to about October 1. Extremes for spring are Mar. 22, 1989 (AA,HHK) and May 11, 1981 (NN), both at New Orleans; in fall they are [July 30, 1988? (GO)] July 31, 1981 at New Orleans (JR) and Nov. 17, 1985 in St. Tammany Par. (JH). GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLER (Vermivora chrysoptera) Uncommon migrant Of the 32 species of warblers which are "regular" in Southeast Louisiana, the beautiful Golden-winged is one of the least common, and yet one or more can usually be found, with sufficient time in the field, during a spring or fall migration. There are at least three records of "Brewster's Warbler" , the more common hybrid between the Blue-winged and Golden-winged Warblers, and one record of the "Lawrence's" hybrid. Anyone interested in these hybrids should see the paper by....Short, .... Although the situation is really very much more complex, basically "Brewster's" hybrid is like a Blue- winged, but with little or no yellow below and perhaps yellow wing-bars, while "Lawrence's" hybrid is like a Golden-winged but with yellow underparts. The records of "Brewster's Warbler" are spring 1891 (fide Frank Chapman, Auk 9:318); Apr. 14, 1953 at Grand Isle (BMM); and Apr. 14-15, 1969 at Grand Isle (KPA). The single record of "Lawrence's Warbler" is Sep. 13, 1935 at New Orleans (TDB--coll). In spring migration, expected dates are April 15 to about May 5, and in fall migration Goldenn-winged Warblers can be expected between August 20 and September 20. Extreme dates are, in spring, Apr. 5, 1968 at Grand Isle (JHe) and May 9, 1982 at New Orleans (JR), while the fall extremes are July 23, 1898 (fide HCO) and Nov. 3, 1985 (GS), both at New Orleans. TENNESSEE WARBLER (Vermivora peregrina) Common migrant, less common in recent years In sping (and fall as well, except during the peak of Yellow Warbler migration) the Tennessee is usually the most common purely transient warbler, although its numbers may have declined somewhat in recent years. Its staccato song, which is poorly described in the National Geographic guid, is often be heard in residential neighborhoods in sping, and its high, thin, "tsit!" or "seet" call note is often heard everywhere in fall. Although there are two winter records since 1981, extreme care should be taken not to confuse this species with others, expecially the next. Indeed, a Tennessee Warbler in winter should be looked at with the idea that it might be a Lucy's or Virginia's Warbler, both of which have occurred in Louisiana in winter. Note that the earliest record for fall, Aug. 29, 1986, was of 20! The next earliest record is Sep. 12. Expected dates of spring migrants are March 25 to May 10, and of fall migrants, are September 15 to November 5. The extreme dates of occurrence are, for spring, Mar. 12, 1900 (HHK) and June 8, 1981 (JR--singing) both at New Orleans; for fall, the dates are Aug. 29, 19.. at Grand Isle (AS,GS--20) and Nov. 23, 1977. The "winter" records are Dec. 30, 1981 (DM,RDP) and Dec. 4, 1984 (JVR,TP,DM--2), both from Venice. It is a bit arbitrary to call the latter record a "winter" record. ORANGE-CROWNED WARBLER (Vermivora celata) Common winter resident The Orange-crowned is one of the two species of warblers that are regular winter visitors, the other being the considerably more common Yellow-rumped, or Myrtle Warbler. This rather drab warbler can be found almost anywhere, but is especially common in brushy situations such as wax myrtle or baccharis thickets at the edge of a marsh. It is a regular component of the winter foraging flocks which also contain chickadees, kinglets, gnatcatchers, downy woodpeckers, etc. Its call note is a quite distinctive "tseet!" or "tsit!", not really the "chip" given in the National Geographic guide. Once learned, the call will reveal the presence of many more Orange-crowned Warblers than one will see. Orange-crowned Warblers occasionally sing in late spring, i.e., the first two weeks of April. Expected dates are October 20 to April 15, with extreme dates of occurrence of Oct. 7, 1956 (SAG) and May 2, 1961 (MEL), both at New Orleans. NASHVILLE WARBLER (Vermivora ruficapilla) Rare fall migrant, very occasional spring migrant The Nashville Warbler is a circum-gulf migrant which moves through east Texas in large numbers in both spring and fall, and is a considerably more common migrant in southwest Louisiana. It is normally absent here, but on occasion, probably because of strong westerly flow, it occurs in fall, usually the first week in October. There are at least 20-25 records, all since 1956 (presumably a meaningless fact), and it is clear that it may be expected in very small numbers from late September to late October. There are only three spring records, perhaps because sustained west winds are less common in spring. The 18 records prior to 1981 were distributed as follows: Sep. (2), Oct. (10), Nov. (3), Dec. (3), Mar. (1), Apr. (1), May (1). It might be noted that there were no records between 1968 (JK) and 1977. During the fall of 1981 Reinoehl had 10 records. Winter records for Louisiana are sparse in spite of the fact that Nashville Warbler winters in east and southern Mexico, and Yucatan. Expected dates are October 1 to October 20, and extreme dates in fall are Aug. 31, 1960 (SAG) and Nov. 19, 1968 (JK--banded), both at New Orleans. The spring records are Apr. 4, 1958 at New Orleans (SAG), May 2, 1961 at New Orleans (SAG,MEL), Mar. 30, 1991 at Grand Isle (RDP,DM), and Apr. 9, 1992 (DM) at Lafitte NP. The winter records are Dec. ..., 1977 at New Orleans (MB), Dec. 28, 1978 at Venice (BC,RJN), and Nov. 30, 1985 at Grand Isle (CL,NLN). LUCY'S WARBLER (Vermivora luciae) Accidental winter vagrant A bird collected at Triumph on Dec. 30, 1959 (SAG,MEL) provided the first Louisiana record of this warbler from the southwestern U.S. There is now at least one other record, from Cameron Parish. Lucy's Warbler lacks the eyeline of the Tennessee Warbler (or Orange-crowned) and has a chestnut-colored rump. The note is a typical Vermivora call, though sharper or stronger than Tennessee's. Should be looked for in brushy fields and other waste areas near the coast (Venice, Grand Isle). NORTHERN PARULA (Parula americana) Very common migrant and summer resident The parula warbler is one of the most common and typical breeding birds of the southern bottomland hardwood or cypress-tupelo swamp. Its ascending, high-pitched buzzy, almost insect-like song is easily learned. It is also one of the most common sping and fall migrants, in these situations often located by its liquid "chip" call which is similar to that of the Yellow Warbler or American Redstart. The Northern Parula is usually the earilest passerine spring migrant, after the Purple Martin, and in addition to the earliest record given below, there are the following late February records: Feb. 26, 1982 and Feb. 23?, 1991, both at Lafitte NP (DM). The unusual number of February records--five-- might cause one to suspect that some of these were very early spring migrants, though none were singing. An interesting late record is of 8 at Venice on Nov. 10, 1985 (RDP,NN). There are two records of Tropical Parula (P. pitiayumi) from Cameron Parish. Expected dates are March 1 to October 20, with extremes of Feb. 22, 1906 (fide Beyer, et al) and Nov. 24, 1961 at Triump (SAG); in spring, migrants are present at least through the first week in May. The "winter" records are: Feb. 13, 1957 at New Orleans (SAG); Feb. 7, 1959 at Reserve (RJS,DW); Dec. 24, 1960 at Buras (SAG); Jan. 7, 1968 at Venice (DS); Feb. 4, 1968 at Venice (LCB); Dec. 16, 1968 at Venice (RDP); Dec. 26, 1981 at Grand Isle (NLN,DN); Feb. 7, 1982 at Grand Isle (JR, et al; likely the same bird as previous); Dec. 30, 1982 at Venice (....); Feb. 8, 1986 at Lafitte NP (AS,GS,JS); Nov. 14, 1991 (DM) at New Orleans? [Remark: the next 18 species of warblers all belong to the genus Dendroica, which contains most of the brightly colored New World Warblers.] YELLOW WARBLER (Dendroica petchia) Uncommon to common spring migrant, very common to sometimes abundant fall migrant Except for the Yellow-rumped (Myrtle) Warbler at its most common, the Yellow Warbler, in mid-August, is the most common of all the warblers in Southeast Louisiana. Beginnin in late July and continuing through August, migrating Yellow Warblers abound, especially in weedy habitats, but in fact almost anywhere. Their presence is made more conspicuous by their habit of migrating by day and calling as they move. The note given in flight is a distinctive buzzy note that closely resembles the call of the Indigo Bunting (they do not, however, overlap by very much in fall migration). The other common call note is a liquid "chip" similar to that of the parula warbler and American Redstart. Yellow Warblers are often common in late spring, and are among the few migrants which can be expected after May 20; they often will be heard singing their sweet, jumbling, rising song. The Yellow Warbler is one of the earliest fall migrants, often the earliest; the bulk are gone by late September. There are at least nine winter records. Expected dates as spring migrants are April 10 to May 15, and for fall migrants July 20 to October 10. Extreme dates in spring are Mar. 30, 1904 (AA) and May 31, 1979 (BMcK), both at New Orleans, while fall extremes are July 2, 1962 at New Orleans (LEW) and Nov. 3, 1985 in Metairie (SP). The winter records are: Feb. 2, 1957 at New Orleans (HBC); Dec. 24, 1957 at Reserve (RJS), Dec. 28, 1961 at New Orleans (fide SAG--2); Dec. 23, 1962 at New Orleans (RF,DKH); Dec. 4, 1983 at Venice (TP,JVR,DM); Dec. 31, 1985 at Venice (DM,RDP,PS...--2); ......, 1986 at Venice (DM,RDP--2); Dec. 31, 1987 at Venice (....); ....Venice (NN,SAG,NLN); Dec. 29, 1991 at Venice (DM,NN,JMcB); Jan. 3, 1993 at Venice (PW). CHESTNUT-SIDED WARBLER (Dendroica pensylvanica) Uncommon spring and fall migrant This warbler, one of the most beautiful of the Denddroicas , is certainly less common than it once was, and could even be missed in an average spring migration. Chestnut-sided Warblers are perhaps less common in fall than spring, although that may result from the fact that they are less conspicuous in fall. The drab fall birds are distinguished by the fact that they are a uniform white to light gray on the underparts and have no face pattern except for an eyering and faintly yellowish wing-bars. In that plumage, they would be most likely to be confused with a fall female or immature Cerulean Warbler which, however, has a distinct eyeline (superciliary stripe). There are no winter records. The expected dates of spring migrants are April 15 to May 10; and in fall migration, September 20 to October 15. Extreme dates are, in spring, Mar. 21, 1894 at New Orleans (GEB) and May 12 in 1960 at New Orleans (SAG) and in 1974 at ...(MM,NN); in fall the extremes are Sep. 4, 1871 at Lewisburg (fide HCO--coll) and Nov. 18, 1985 at New Orleans (NN). MAGNOLIA WARBLER (Dendroica magnolia) Common migrant The Magnolia Warbler is a regular spring and fall migrant, sometimes encountered in large numbers, usually in "fall-out" conditions of bad weather in spring and fall. The only identification problem posed by this species is that immatures and females in fall look very different from spring males, or even spring females. The fall birds may have almost no streaking below, and little in the way of face markings except for a fairly prominent eyering. Thus they present an appearence of being yellow below, gray above, and with an eyering. Magnolia Warblers, whose song is something like a distant or soto voce Hooded Warbler, mainly because of the rising inflection at the end, sing sparingly during spring migration, but do give their rather unusual call, which is a drawn-out, nasal, almost "mewing" note. There are at least seven winter records. Spring migrants are expected between April 25 and May 10 (15?) and fall migratns between September 15 and November 1. Extremes are, in spring, Apr. 12, 1969 at Grand Isle (JMH,RF) and May 25, 1975 at New Orleans (JR); in fall, Sep. 5, 1981 (JR) and Nov. 17, 1985 (RDP), both at New Orleans. The winter records are: Dec. 30, 1959 at Buras (SAG,MEL,MW); Dec. 27, 1962 at New Orleans (MEL,SAG); Nov. 29, 1964 at Venice (SAG); Jan. 3, 1965 at Venice (SAG--coll); Dec. 24, 1969 at Triumph (RDP); Dec. 16-29, 1973 at Reserve (MW); Dec. 29, 1975 at Triumph (RDP,NN,NLN). CAPE MAY WARBLER (Dendroica tigrina) Rare spring migrant The Cape May Warbler normally migrates down the east coast, presumably through Cuba, to its wintering grounds in the West Indies. As a result, it is not often found in Southeast Louisiana, unless weather conditions, presumably sustained eastern flow, diverts part of the flight in our direction. On occasion, Cape May Warblers can be relatively common, even as far west as southwest Louisiana, and there are now at least 21 records for Southeast Louisiana. The maximum number encounted on a single trip in Southeast Louisiana in spring is 18 at Grand Isle on Apr. 20, 1963 (MD,EAT), and at least 5 were seen on another occasion. On the other hand, often a spring passes with no records, and there are but two (3?) fall records (fall birds, especially females and immatures are not at all distinctive and confusion can easily result). Perhaps the most interesting individual record is that of a male Cape May Warbler which landed on a boat off Southwest Pass of the Mississippi River on May 6, 1985 (MM). Expected dates are approximately April 15 to May 1, with extremes of Apr. 5, 1969 at Myrtle Grove (DS) and May 18, 1981 at Grand Isle (NN,DM). The fall record(s) are: Nov. 13, 1983 at Grand Isle (DM,RDP,NN) [and RDP....City Park...]; Oct. 17, 1993 at Grand Isle (MM,RDP). BLACK-THROATED BLUE WARBLER (Dendroica caerulescens) Rare migrant The Black-throated Blue Warbler breed from the norther U.S. and Canada south into the Smokies. Its migration routes normally take it to the east of us, through Florida and (perhaps) transgulf from as far west as Alabama. As with the Cape May Warbler, however, strong easterly flow, especially in spring, may divert an occasional Black- throated Blue into this area. There are, in fact, over two dozen records, only two of which came between 1967 and 1978; the maximum number recorded is four (two collected), on May 18, 1952 at Pilottown (CFL). There are four winter records. It should be apparent from a glance at a field guide that females are not well marked. Note especially the white supercilliary stripe and the slightly buffy underparts. The white wing patch is often inconspicuous. Black-throated Blue Warblers have been seen, in spring, between Mar. 22, 1894 at New Orleans (GEB) and May 22, 1988 at Grand Isle (...).[1989 DM?]; and in fall, between Sep. 8, 1956 at New Orleans (BMM,MM,CLE,HAJE) and Nov. 3, 1957 at Grand Isle (DLC,EOW).{Oct. 17, 1992 GI MM,RDP}. YELLOW-RUMPED WARBLER (Dendroica coronata) Very common to abundant winter resident [MYRTLE WARBLER] [AUDUBON'S WARBLER] This is the common wintering warbler (to many, too common!) of woodland, marshy edges with willows and wax myrtles, and residential gardens. By April, many "Myrtle" Warblers will be heard singing. The western form, formerly "Audubon's" Warbler, which has a noticeably different call note, has been recorded on at least 18 occasions, between Oct. 9 and May 7. Expected dates of wintering are October 20 to April 25, with extreme dates of occurrence of Oct. 6, 1991 at Diamond (MM,NN,RDP) and May 5 in 1951 (HBC) at Grand Isle and 1956 (SAG) in New Orleans. BLACK-THROATED GRAY WARBLER (Dendroica nigrescens) Casual in winter There are at least 19 records of this western warbler of the Rocky Mountains, Cascades, and Sierra Nevada, all since 1955, so that one might be expected in any winter. All records are since 1955, and most of them from near the coast. The records are distributed as follows: Oct. (3), Nov. (4), Dec. (5), Jan. (4), Feb. (2), Mar. (1). The late Mar. 25, 1980 record was of a bird which overwintered at Triumph. The call of the Black-throated Gray is somewhere between that of the "Myrtle" Warbler, and of the Black-throated Green Warbler. There were records on consecutive Venice CBCs, on Dec. ....., 1992 and on Jan. 2, 1994. The extreme dates of occurence are Oct. 8, 1977 at Grand Isle (RJS,MW) and Mar. 25, 1980 at Trimph (NN). [TOWNSEND'S WARBLER (Dendroica townsendi) ] HYPOTHETICAL There are two reports of birds, both from Grand Isle and both from the spring of ...., which were thought to be of this species. The records are:.....Neither record has been considered? by the LOS Bird Records Committee. HERMIT WARBLER (Dendroica occidentalis) Accidental The only record of the Hermit Warbler, which breeds mountain forests of the Pacific Coast, and the first for Louisiana, is of an individual studied carefully at Grand Isle on Jan. 12, 1972 (RDP,TV). There is one other record for Louisiana, a bird collected in spring at Cameron. BLACK-THROATED GREEN WARBLER (Dendroica virens) Common migrant The Black-throated Green Warbler is one of the commoner spring and fall migrant warblers. It is frequently heard in spring giving its "zee-zee-zoo-zee" song, and its somewhat stoney "chip" note should be learned by all. This is so not only because it helps located this species, but because its cousins, the Hermit, Townsend's, and Golden- cheeked Warblers, give a similar, but not identical, call. There are at least 23 winter records between Nov. 23 and Mar. 3. Of these, 11 are from December, 3 from January, and 4 from February. The maximum number recorded is 90 at Grand Isle on Apr. 22, 1984 (MM,DM,NN). Expected dates in spring are April 15 to May 10, and in fall are September 10 to November 1. The extreme dates are, in spring, Mar. 14, 1965 (JMH) and May. 26, 1979 (RDP), both at New Orleans; in fall Black-throated Green Warblers have been seen between Aug. 5, 1991 at Lafitte NP (DM) and Nov. 20, 1991 at New Orleans (NN). BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER (Dendroica fusca) Uncommon to common migrant While spectacular and unmistable in spring, fall Blackburnian Warblers, especially females and immatures, can be quite confusing. The key, in the case of a poorly marked fall bird, aside from the pale yellow throat and upper breast, is the face pattern. Probably the only likely confusion is with Pine Warbler, but that should be only momentary, if one looks at the face. The Blackburnian Warbler winters from Costa Rica south to Peru and Bolivia so that wintering is quite rare. Expected dates in spring are April 10 to May 15 and September 5 to October 20. Extreme dates are, in spring, Mar. 22, 1959 to June 2, 1976 at New Orleans (JR); in fall they are Aug. 22, 1959 and Nov. 7, 1985 at New Orleans (NN). There are four "winter" records, including one from the Bonnet Carre Spillway on Dec. 8, year unknown: Nov. 30, 1956 at Mandeville (SLW), Jan. 3, 1965 at Venice (fide SAG), and Dec. 4, 1983 at Venice (JVR,TP,DM--coll). Perhaps on the January record is unequivocally "wintering" (if that means anything). YELLOW-THROATED WARBLER (Dendroica dominica) Common summer resident The Yellow-throated Warbler is one of the earliest of the spring migrants and can often be found on its breeding grounds early in the first week of March. While not a rare migrant by any means, it is probably much more easily found, during migration, on territory in breeding habitat. It is a common breeding bird of cypress-tupelo swamp, where it nests in spanish moss in treetops, typically in baldcypress, but it nests in pine trees which grow on the upland edges of such habitat as well. A personal rendition of its song, which is slightly variable, Is "choo-ey, choo-ey, choo-choo-choo-wee!" There are at least 21 winter records, from Nov. 2 to Feb. 11, making it one of the more regular of the wintering warblers. Expected dates are, as summer resident, March 10 to October 10, and the Yellow- throated Warbler has been seen between Feb. 25, 1991 in the Sarpy Swamp (RDP)[Feb. 23, 19... (NN,RDP) White Kitchen] to Nov. 10, 1985 at Venice (DM,MM,NN,RDP). It is clearly a bit arbitrary to draw the line at Nov. 10, and to call Nov. 21 "wintering," but at least there are no records for that 11 day period. PINE WARBLER (Dendroica pinus) Common to very common resident of pine flats, regular in winter south of Lake Pontchartrain, occasionally breeding there The Pine Warbler is a typical and common resident of the pine worlds north of Lake Pontchartrain. During the breeding season, it will not usually be found on the south shore of the lake (but see below), but after breeding, from October to March, it is a relatively common winter resident, usually where there are pine trees. During period of migratory movement, when Pine Warblers are retreating from the northern U.S. to the gulf coast on down to northern Mexico, they may be found anywhere, so it should not be assumed that Pine Warblers will not occur in the coastal cheniers, for example, because they often do. In New Orleans good places to look are in the pines along the lakefront or on Marconi Drive, and on Scout Island in City Park. On May 8 and 15, 1985 a singing Pine Warbler was found in the pines on the New Orleans lakefront (AS,GS), raising the possibility of nesting south of the lake, and on June 8, 1992 Nelkin found fledged young in Lake Vista, near the New Orleans lakefront. The song is a distinct metallic trill which lasts no more than about two seconds, and which can be confused only with Chipping Sparrow (and perhaps Worm- eating Warbler), and the chip is a thin, but emphatic "tsik!". Immature Pine Warblers in fall can be very poorly marked, showing a distinct eyering, and hence are reminiscent of immature fall Chestnut-sided Warbers. Expected dates (south of the lake) are October 10 to March 15 and extreme dates of occurrence are Sep. 19, 1981 at New Orleans (NN) and Apr. 15, 1937 at Grand Isle (TDB--coll). Singing territorial males have been found on several occasions in Lake Vista, near Lake Pontchartrain, and on at least one occasion fledged young have been observed: June 8, 1992 (NN). PRAIRIE WARBLER (Dendroica discolor) Uncommon to nearly common summer resident in cut-over pine tracts, regular fall migrant, uncommon spring migrant The Prairie Warbler presents an interesting problem, for it is a regular breeding bird north of Lake Pontchartrain in cut-over pine flats (trees about 8-20' high), but is uncommon as a transient, and especially so in spring. So while fall records are not unusual, all spring records are worth reporting. The song is a rather weak but very distinctive rising buzzy trill. There are at least 15 winter records. The Prairie Warbler is easy to identify, if a good look is gotten, by its face pattern, with the yellow strip above the eye and a small patch below giving it a very distinctive look. Expected dates in spring migration are March 2 to April 15, and in fall August 15 to November 15. Extreme dates are, in spring, Mar. 18, 1990 (RDP...?..DM?) and May 21, 1981 at Boothville (RDP,NN), and in fall, July 17, 1977 at Grand Isle (MM,NN,RDP) and Nov. 24, 1961 at Buras (SAG). There are at least 12 winter records: Dec. 21, 1959 at New Orleans (SAG); Jan. 5, 1960 at New Orleans (SAG); Jan. 27, 1964 at New Orleans (SAG ); Jan. 3, 1965 at Venice (fide SAG); Dec. 24, 1965 at New Orleans (SAG); Dec. 23, 1973 at Venice (RDP,RSK); Jan. 5, 1975 at Grand Isle (MM,NN); Dec. 18, 1980 at Bucktown (NN); Dec. 18, 1981 at Covington (DM,JVR); Dec. 29, 1982 at Triump (BC, et al); Jan. 2, 1982 at Reserve (fide RJS); Dec. 29, 1983 at Venice (SAG,MW,MA); Dec. 4, 1991 at New Orleans (NN); Dec. 21, 1991 on US 11 (NN,RDP,GG); Dec. 29, 1991 at Venice (DM,NN,JMcB). PALM WARBLER (Dendroica palmarum) Uncommon winter resident In proper habitat, typically wet wax myrtle and willow thickets, this species can be quite common. It is almost always recorded on local Christmas Counts and yet it can be surprising hard to find when one is looking for it. One landed on a boat off Southwest Pass on May 6, 1985 (MM). The Palm Warbler is readily recognized by the heavily streaked underparts, the habit of "bobbing" or wagging its tail (as does the Prairie Warbler), and the rusty crown in alternate plumage. Its call note is a complex chip which has some similarity to the much thinner "tsick" of the Pine Warbler. Expected dates are October 1 to April 15, and extreme dates of occurrence are Aug. 4, 1896 at New Orleans (fide HCO--coll) and May 6, 1975 at ....(NN). BAY-BREASTED WARBLER (Dendroica castanea) Common late spring migrant, uncommon to occasionally common fall migrant The Bay-breasted Warbler can often be the most common migrant warbler in the coastal woods in May. At that time its plumage is unmistable (especially in the case of the males) and many will be heard singing, giving their very high-pitched "see-see". Fall is another matter, especially with females and immatures, the latter having little or no buff (bay) on the sides of the breast, thus resembling the immature fall blackpoll. Both have nearly unstreaked underparts and a faint superciliary line. The Bay-breasted Warbler, however, has dark legs. The color of the upperparts and the undertail coverts will usually distinguish one species from another but in the former case the color differences, yellow- green vs. green, are subtle, at least to this observer, and in the latter, the distinction is not invariable. See Kaufman's (1990) discussion of "the blackpoll trio" in which he includes Pine Warbler. Although there are 7 winter records, any bird suspected of being this species in winter should be examined with great care, since it will probably be an immature, and because the Bay-breasted Warbler winters quite far south, from Panama to Venezuela. Occasionally the Bay-breasted Warbler is quite common in fall migration. Expected dates are, in spring, April 25 to May 15, and in fall, October 1 to November 1. In spring, Bay-breasted Warblers have been seen between Apr 10, 1983 at Grand Isle (RDP,LO'M,NN) and May 28, 19... at New Orleans (DM--3), while in fall the extreme dates of occurrence have been Sep. 2, 1986 at Grand Isle (RDP,NN) and Nov. 6, 1985 at New Orleans (NN). Winter records are: Dec. 3, 1961 at New Orleans (ART); Dec. 30, 1967 at New Orleans (SAG); Nov. 23, 1969 at Empire (RJN,KPA,RDP); Nov. 28, 1968 at New Orleans (DS); Nov. 28, 1970 at New Orleans (DN,RDP); Dec. 20, 1975 at New Orleans (RDP); Dec. 4, 1983 at Venice (JVR,TP,DM--coll). BLACKPOLL WARBLER (Dendroica striata) Uncommon to common spring migrant Although the Blackpoll is a common transient in the coastal woods in spring, it is quite rare in fall. Moreover, as described above, great care must be exercised in distinguishing Blackpolls (especially immatures) in fall. There are but seven fall records. Blackpolls are occasionally seen away from the coast--at New Orleans, for example, but only infrequently. Blackpolls have been seen on Grand Gosier and Curlew Islands in the last week in May. There is one remarkable out of season record, of a definitive alternate (breeding plumage) male on July 19, 1981 at Grand Isle (RDP,NN,SN)! Expected dates of spring migrants are April 20 to May 10, with extremes of Apr. 7, 1994 (MM, et al) and June 4, 1933 (fide HCO--coll), both from Grand Isle. The fall records are: Sep. 21, 1897 at New Orleans (HHK--coll); Oct. 15, 1959 at New Orleans (SAG--2); Nov. 28, 1959 at Grand Isle (LCB); Sep. 27, 1968 at Grand Isle (DS); Sep. 18, 1976 at Grand Isle (RH,RJS); Oct. 9-10, 1979 at New Orleans (JR,NN); Oct. 14, 1980 at New Orleans (JR); Sep. 27-28, 1991 at New Orleans (NN). CERULEAN WARBLER (Dendroica caerulea) Uncommon migrant This beautiful warbler is never common in migration, and seems to be less numerous now than 25 years ago. Although it was reported by Beyer to have bred in Madisonville (fide HCO), there has been no other indication of nesting, and in fact its status as a breeding bird in Louisiana is uncertain. As the Cerulean Warbler breeds from Colombia south, it is not surprising that there are no winter records. Fall birds, and especially immatures in fall, are not strongly marked. Note, however, the superciliary stripe, which rules out immature Chestnut-sided. Expected dates for spring migratns are April 5 to April 25, and for fall migrants, August 20 to September 15. In spring Cerulean Warblers have been seen between Mar. 27 in 1926 (fide HCO--coll) and in 1965 (SAG--4), both at Grand Isle, and May 6, 1968 at Grand Isle. Fall migrants have been recorded between Jul. 30, 1981 (JR) and Oct. 4, 1980 (JR), both at New Orleans. BLACK-AND-WHITE WARBLER (Mniotilta varia) Common spring and fall migrant; rare in winter The Black-and-white Warbler is one of the commoner and more familiar of the migrant warblers, in part because its migration periods are among the longest in both spring and fall. It breeds, or has bred, at the periphery of the checklist area, just northeast of Lake Maurepas in Livingston Parish (DN,RDP), and perhaps elsewhere. G.E. Beyer reported this warbler breeding at Madisonville in 1891 (Beyer 1900). The Black-and- white Warbler also winters frequently, and is almost expected on any Southeast Louisiana Christmas Count. The numerous winter records (including 6 on the 1994-5 Venice CBC) make accurate determination of departure dates in fall impossible. Expected dates are, in spring, March 15 to May 20, and in fall, August 10 to October 25. Extreme dates in spring are Mar. 1 in 1966 at New Orleans (DKH) and in 1970 at Empire (RDP,RJN) to May 25, 1991 at Grand Ise (MM,NN,RDP,GC). In fall, Black-and-white Warblers have been recorded between Jul. 8, 1990 at Grand Isle (RDP,DM) and Nov. 20, 1985 at Venice (RDP,NN). AMERICAN REDSTART (Setophaga ruticilla) Common migrant, uncommon local summer resident Althoug the American Redstart is best known as a spring and fall migrant, it also breeds in the area, especially in the Pearl RIver basin, where it is fairly common. In bottomland habitat (now cleared) in Livingston Parish it was found tto be quite abundant (DN,RDP). It is interesting that the redstart was not known to breed in the area until 1970; whether it was overlooked, or has increased in numbers, is not known. However, in 1933, Oberholser recorded it on June 10 on Little Barataria Bayou, on June 23 in Westwego, and on June 27 in the Pearl River, suggesting that redstarts have been present for many years. American Redstarts were also considered summer residents at Diamond, where they are now simply migrants, by Ballowe in the first decade of the century. Beyer (1900) considered the American Redstart only a migrant in Louisiana. Note that the latest record in spring, June 8, 1985, is of a bird seen 20 miles off the mouth of the river! There are over 15 winter records between Nov. 23 and Feb. 8. A recent census on US 11 in the Honey Island Swamp yeilded 17 singing males on May 26, 1995 (RDP). Expected dates, as a migrant, are April 5 to May 15 in spring, and August 1 to November 1 in fall. Extreme dates for spring migrants are Mar. 9, 1980 at New Orleans (SP,RDP) and June 8, 1985 20 miles SE of Southwest Pass (MM); in fall the extremes are July 22 in 1888 on Bedico River fide HCO) and in 1942 at New Orleans (TDB) and Nov. 16, 1985 at Lafitte NP (CL?) and Grand Isle (AS,GS). Winter recordsare: Dec. 27, 1956 at New Orleans (SAG,BJD); Jan. 30, 1960 at Buras (MEL--2); Dec. 24, 1960 at Venice (LEW--2); Jan. 3, 1965 at Venice (fide SAG--3); Dec. 28, 1965 at Venice (fide SAG--5); Nov. 23-Dec. 6, 1968 at New Orleans (RDP,DS); Nov. 29, 1968 at Venice (DS); Dec. 5, 1977 at Venice (MM,NN,RDP); Dec. 6, 1981 at Venice (MM,RDP); Dec. 30, 1981 at Venice (RDP,DM); Dec. 31, 1982 at Venice; Feb. 8, 1987 at Lafitte NP (AS....). PROTHONOTARY WARBLER (Protonotarius citrini) Common summer resident in bottomland and cypress-tupelo swamp The Prothonotary Warbler typifies the cypress-tupel swamp habitat, in which it breeds commonly, and is numerous in poorly drained bottomland hardwoods as well. Good places to find it are in the Honey Island swamp on old U.S. highway 11, in the Sarpy Swamp below the Bonnet Carre Spillway, and so on. The only record of overwintering for this species, which winters from southern Mexico south, is of a female which wintered at Grand Isle in 1983-4, having been recorded on the Grand Isle Christmas Count on Jan. 2, 1984 (JW), and was seen several times into the early spring. A Nov. 29, 1970 record at New Orleans (RDP) was the first "winter" season record for Louisiana of this warbler. In addition to the March 10 records given below is a Mar. 12, 1988 record from Lafitte NP (AS,GS). Expected dates are March 20 to September 20, with extremes of Mar. 9, 1992 at ... (DM) [previously Mar. 10 in 1904 and in 1905, both at South Pass (fide HCO)], and Nov. 2, 1980 at Venice (SP). WORM-EATING WARBLER (Helmitheros vermivorus) Uncommon migrant, rare or uncommon breeder near the area Although the Worm-eating Warbler is a regular spring and fall migrant, it has also been found breeding near the checklist area, in the vicinity of Livingston (RDP,DN; DPM). In breeding season, it has been found on brushy upland edges of bottomland forests (RDP), and in dense overgrown mixed pine--deciduous woods near streamsides (DPM). Although usually seen in ones or twos, it is sometimes abundant near the coast in early April, given the right weather conditions. There are two winter records (of three for the state): Dec. 30, 1971 at Boothville (RDP) and Jan. 2, 1995 at Triumph (RDP). Expected dates in migration are, in spring, April 1 to May 1 and in fall, August 25 to October 10. The extremes in spring are Mar. 17, 1991 (DM) and May 6, 1969; in fall, Worm-eating Warblers have been seen between Aug. 6, 1967 at New Orleans (RDP) and Nov. 10, 1985 at Venice (RDP). SWAINSON'S WARBLER (Limnothlypsis swainsonii) Uncommon summer resident of bottomland habitat In spite of its reputation as a rare species, which is unfounded, and its renown for its secretiveness, which is well deserved, the Swainson's Warbler is in fact not uncommon in the proper habitat. Typically it is found in bottomland thickets, especially with greenbrier (Smilax) and grape vine undergrowth or canebrakes; a good place to find it is in the Pearl River Wildlife Managment Area along old U.S. 11 in the Honey Island swamp. Its song, with apologies, is a "whee, whee, whee, church is free...", quite similar to that of the Louisiana Waterthrush, which breeds in rather similar habitat, but has a very different ending. The song is loud and sweet and carries well, but it also seems to be ventriloquial. Apparently some people have difficulty distinguishing the song of Swainson's Warbler from the "wheeta-wheeta-whee-tee-too" of the Hooded Warbler, but this writer finds only a modest similarity. The song does bear a rather close resemblance to that of the Louisiana Waterthrush, which breeds sparingly in much the same habitat in the northern section of the area. The primary difference is that the song of the Louisiana Waterthrush ends in a jumble, rather than a sweet whistle. Occasionally Swainson's Warbler is seen in migration in the coastal woods, or even in City Park, but fall records are quite rare. Few birds are harder to actually see once they have located by song. Indeed, Rev. John Bachman wrote, of his experience with the bird near Charleston, South Carolina during the spring of 1832 that "I was first attracted by the novelty of its notes, four or five in number...These notes were loud, clear, and more like a whistle than a song. They resembled the sounds of some extraordinary ventriloquist in such a degree that I supposed the bird much farther from me than it really was." Galbraith collected "about three dozen" near Lake Pontchartrain in the spring of 1886. Expected dates are April 1 to September 10, with extremes of Mar. 25, 1986 at Grand Isle (PW,CS,CK) and Oct. 1, 1958 at New Orleans (SAG). OVENBIRD (Seiurus aurocapillus) Common spring and fall migrant The Ovenbird is a common and familiar migrant which is present essentially throughout the peak periods of spring and fall migration. It is one of those low-feeding species (including the waterthrushes, Hooded Warbler, the Oporornis warblers, etc.) which are usually found on or near the ground. All three species of Seirus winter throughout Mexico, and are thus not infrequently found lingering or overwintering in Southeast Louisiana. Lowery (1974) mentions a reported nesting near Bogalusa on Apr. 13, 1963. Expected dates are, in spring, April 5 to May 10 (15?), and in fall, September 10 to October 25. The extreme dates of occurrence are, in spring, Mar. 22, 1992 at New Orleans (NN) and May 22, 1988......(May 21, 1995 Grand Isle (NLN). in fall the extremes are Aug. 9, 1870 at the Rigolets (HWH) and Nov. 11, 1962 in the delta (SAG). There are at least 21 winter records from Nov. 21 to Mar. 1, almost all from near the coast. NORTHERN WATERTHRUSH (Seiurus novaboracensis) Common migrant Waterthrushes of both species advertise their presence by their loud, distincitive "chink!" call. In fact the call of this species is slightly stonger and has fewer overtones, so that, at least some of the time, it is possible to distinguish the waterthrushes by call. Occasionally Northern Waterthrush may be heard singing in spring, although it does not breed in the southern U.S. at all. The Northern Waterthrush, which is considerably more common than the next species, is charaterized by its small bill, a fully streaked throat, and a rather buffy eyeline which makes a convex curve over the eye. The Louisiana has a large bill, tends to be whiter below except on the lower flanks, which are buffy, has an eyeline which is more nearly straight and even seems to flare up (actually, doesn't narrow like that of the Northern) at the rear, and it tends to have a clear throat. The expected dates are, in spring, April 5 to May 10, and in fall, from August 5 to October 15. Northern Waterthushes have been seen, in spring, between Mar. 19, 1972 at Grand Isle and May 22, 1988 at Grand Isle (......); in fall, between July 13, 1969 at New Orleans (JK,LW,WW) to Nov. 10, 1985 at Venice (NN,RDP). There are over 27 winter records between Nov. 23 and Mar. 1. LOUISIANA WATERTHRUSH (Seiurus motacilla) Uncommon migrant, local summer resident north of Lake Pontchartrain Although the Louisiana Waterthrush is usually seen as a migrant, it is a quite uncommon breeding bird of creek bottomland (generally near clear, upland streams) in the northern part of the checklist area. Recent summer records include north of Bonfuca on June 15, 1984 (RDP) and east of Franklinton on July 3, 1983 (JN,RDP,DN) and in the summer of 1990. There is one definite breeding record, from Goodbee in St. Tammany Parish, on June 15, 1962 (MM). The individual at Laffite NP on July 7, 1992 (DM) is assumed to be an early southbound migrant. As discussed above, its call note is every so slightly different--thinner or more complex than that of the Northern Waterthrush (and see above for identification details). The song, which is only heard on the breeding grounds, resembles that of Swainson's Warbler (which see), but ends in a jumble after the whistled "whee-whee-whee...". The expected dates for migrants are March 25 to May 1, in spring, and August 10 to Oct 1 in fall. The extreme dates of occurrence are Mar. 12, 1960 at Point-a-la-Hace (SAG) and May 9, 1967 at Grand Isle (DM,MM) in spring, and in fall, July 7, 1992 in Barataria (DM) [previously July 20, 1935 (TDB)] and Oct. 30, 1985 (NN), both at New Orleans. There are two winter records, Dec. 26, 1955 at New Orleans (TVG) and Dec. 31, 1970 at Triumph (NN). A record at Grand Isle on May (21 or 22?) (JVR,DLD,SWC) is the latest known date for a migrating Louisiana Waterthrush. KENTUCKY WARBLER (Oporornis formosus) Uncommon to common migrant, uncommon to common summer resident in bottomland habitat The Kentucky Warbler is regular in summer in the same bottomland habitat where Hooded Warblers, Red-eyed Vireos, and Acadian Flycatchers breed. Thus is may be found in creek bottom habitat north of the lake, to the Honey Island swamp, and even, sparingly, in the Poydras--English Turn area. Its song is a "turtle-turtle-turtle" which could be thought to resemble the Carolina Wren, but is simpler, less variable, and less musical. The call note is a somewhat liquid "chuck", "chup", or "chirp" that is distinctive when learned, resembling perhaps that of the Overbird. While expected dates are April 1 to October 1, extreme dates of occurrence are Mar. 25, 1980 at Venice (NN) and Oct. 19, 1895 at New Orleans (AA). The lone winter record is from New Orleans, on Jan. 2, 1967 (RJS,JC). CONNECTICUT WARBLER (Oporornis agilis) Occasional spring migrant Although the Connecticut Warbler is here included on the Southeast Louisiana list (rather than being given the "hypothetical" status), the only local record, and all other Louisiana records, have been rejected by the LOS Bird Record Committee. That decision, in which the author participated, is no doubt the best approach, given the small number of remotely convincing records (five in number, including one singing) and lack of a specimen, but it seems unnecessary to be quite that cautious here. The lone record, of one seen on May 14, 1980 (NN) in New Orleans' Lake Vista, leaves little to be desired in terms of a description, and spring birds are distinctive (in general, Connecticut Warbler has a bright, complete eyering which cannot even be confused with that of a female Mourning Warbler, and it has very long undertail coverts, nearly extending to the end of the tail--see the field guides). It is very likely to be seen on the ground. The late spring date is quite consistent with what is to be expected. MOURNING WARBLER (Oporornis philadelphia) Rare fall migrant There are 13? records of this rather secretive Oporornis warbler which, because it seems to be a circumgulf migrant, is much more common in east Texas and southwest Louisiana, in fall migration, than it is here. There are no spring records. The problem is telling this species from the rarer McGillivray's Warbler. Adult males are essentially unmistakable, lacking any kind of eyering. Females and immatures of both species will ususually have a broken eyering (some female Mournings having a complete eyering), and though the Mourning Warbler usually will not show the strong eye crescents of the MacGillivray's the latter are variable. Immatures in fall are very hard to distinguish (see Roberson 1980), but females Mournings look somewhat like a yellowthroat, and may lack any hint of hood. Young male Mourning Warblers are more likely to have a yellowish wash on the throat, surrounded by a faint hood, but some immature female MacGillivray's will also although the throat is generally whitish or grayish in immatures of both species. The immature male Mourning will also have a white throat. Mourning Warbler is shorter-tailed. If it has strong eye-crescents, it is a MacGillivray's; if it has a yellow wash on the throat is it more likely, but not certainly, a Mourning. The call notes are different, but unless the observer is very familiar with one or both, that is little help, for they are both fairly typical Oporornis notes. In the case of this species, it is a somewhat buzzy "chek!". A mourning-type warbler in mid-winter should be strongly suspected to be MacGillivray's. Although the dozen or so fall records span the period between August 9 and November 19, the species should not be expected much after the end of September (nor much before the first of September); thus expected dates are approximately September 5 to October 1. The records are: Oct. 7, 1896 at New Orleans (AA); Aug. 5, 1957 at New Orleans (SAG,KC); Sep. 13, 1957 at New Orleans (SAG); Aug. 9, 1959 at New Orleans (MEL); Sep. 13, 1964 at New Orleans (SAG); Oct. 14, 1980 at New Orleans (JR); Nov. 21, 1982 at Triumph (RDP,MM); Sep. 4, 1983 at Venice (NN,DM); Sep. 9, 1983 at New Orleans (NN); Sep. 22, 1983 at New Orleans (NN); Sep..... 1987 at Lafitte NP (DM); Aug. 29, 1992 at New Orleans (DM--photo). Note the distribution: Aug. (2), Sept. (6), Oct. (2), Nov. (1). There is a single spring record ?, April 12, 1979 at..... MACGILLIVRAY'S WARBLER (Oporornis tolmiei) Occasional in fall or winter There are three records of this western species from Southeast Louisiana, both collected. The intial record was the only record for Louisiana for over 25 years: Nov. 15, 1959 near Buras (SAG). The second record was of one found at Venice on Dec. 26, 19...... (DN), relocated on Dec. 30 (DM,RDP), and collected on....... The most recent was of a male in Plaquemines Parish on Feb. 23, 1992 (PY,DM). See the discussion of Mourning Warbler for identification details. According to Sibley and Monroe, "often considered conspecific with O. philadephia. COMMON YELLOWTHROAT (Geothlypis trichas) Common to abundant resident Although the Common Yellowthroat is a permanent resident--the only permanent resident warbler south of Lake Pontchartrain, there are important migratory movements which are quite evident in the field. The Common Yellowthroat breeds over much of the U.S. but winters only in the southern United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. On occasion, in migration, there are yellowthroats everywhere, with daily counts in the hundreds. The yellowthroat inhabits a variety of marshy and brushy habitats. Lowery (1974) merged the general Oporornis and Geothlypis. Sibley and Monroe (1990) have not followed Lowery. HOODED WARBLER (Wilsonia citrina) Common summer resident of bottomland habitat The Hooded Warbler breeds commonly in bottomland hardwoods, its "wheeta- wheeta-whee-tee-too" song being one of the more characteristic sounds of that habitat. It is quite widespread in the nesting season, but to find it one could do not better than to visit old U.S. 11 in the Honey Island swamp (Pearl River Wildlife Management Area). In migration the Hooded Warbler is often quite abundant, and there it is identified primarily by its distinctive "tsik!" call note, which the National Geographic guide renders as a "metallic chink", not a very good description. It is easily learned, however, but only by seeing a Hooded Warbler give the call. Occasionally it almost sounds like a waterthrush, but a second hearing will disabused the listener of that impression. Expected dates are March 25 to October 15 and extreme dates of occurrence are Mar. 7, 1991 (NN) and Nov. 10, 1985 (MM), both at New Orleans. There is one winter record, Jan. 18, 1969 at Braithwaite (KPA). WILSON'S WARBLER (Wilsonia pusilla) Quite uncommon winter vistior, occasionally more common in migration Wilson's Warbler is recorded quite frequently in winter, although it is much more common in some winters than others. Fluctuations like this, in species which are present in rather small numbers, may be little more than statistical artifacts, or they may reflect breeding success, effects of weather, etc. The key to finding Wilson's Warbler (as with so many other species) is to learn its insisten, rather petulent call, which is a bit like that of a Winter Wren, but given only singly. By calling it a "sharp chip" the Geographic guide misses the point altogether. The song, which is a chattering, somewhat wren-like song, is rarely heard in this area. Wilson's Warbler in winter inhabits low, brushy habitat. The male, with its black cap, is unmistable, and indeed in early New Orleans CBCs what reported as Black-capped Warbler. The female bears a resemblance to the female Hooded Warbler, which, however, has a great deal of white in the tail, has a different call note, and has the look of a Hooded Warbler in that it has a kind of outline of the male hood, with a dark top of the head and nape. Expected dates of occurrence of Wilson's Warbler are October 1 to March 25. Extreme dates are Sep. 14, 1957 (SAG) and Apr. 10, 1978 (JR), both at New Orleans. CANADA WARBLER (Wilsonia canadensis) Uncommon fall migrant, rare spring migrant Because the Canada Warbler is apparently a circumgulf migrant in spring, it is quite rare in Southeast Louisiana. In fall, on the other hand, especially in late August or early September, it can usually be found, and sometimes in numbers. Expected dates of migrants are, in spring, May 1 to May 10, and in fall, August 25 to October 1. Canada Warblers have been seen in spring between Apr. 3, 1952 at Grand Isle (HBC) and May 17, 1980 at New Orleans (JR), and in fall, between Aug. 11, 1985 at Lafitte NP (DM) and Oct. 29, 1987 at New Orleans (NN). PAINTED REDSTART (Setophaga picta) Accidental Until 1994 what was the only record of the Painted Redstart for Louisiana, was almost too good to be true. It was of a bird seen, supposedly independently, by two observers, between Nov. 17 and Dec. 7, 1962 (TVG,HBC), in New Orleans' City Park! As remarkable as this record is, given that this species breeds from Arizona into Sonora and Chihuahua, and winters further south, it is made slightly less inconceivable by the fact that one has now been recorded in coastal Mississippi, which surely passed through Southeast Louisiana on its way to the Waveland Sewage Ponds, and now, by a record from Sw. Louisiana. YELLOW-BREASTED CHAT (Icteria virens) Fairly common summer resident in appropriate habitat, uncommon to rare migrant The Yellow-breasted Chat is one of those species which is rathe common on its breeding grounds, but unaccountably rare in migration. Be that as it may, it can be found in brushy thickets around the city, in modest numbers, but quite commonly in cutover pine flats, with young pines only 6-20 ft high and considerable understory. Its elaborate vocalizations defy description, but once learned are never forgotten. They consist of whistles, chatters, and mewing sounds. Expected dates are April 5 to about September 15, with extremes of Mar. 26, 1960 at New Orleans (SAG) and Nov. 29, 1963 at Boothville (SAG). The latter record possibly represents wintering, in which case the only October record might be considered the latest in fall: Oct. 18, 1970 (WW). There are 14 winter records: Dec. 24, 1957 at Reserve (RJS); Jan. 22, 1961 at Grand Isle (SAG); Dec. 24, 1960 at Delta NWE (LEW,JLD?); Jan. 2, 1967 at New Orleans (fide SAG); Jan. 29, 1967 at New Orleans (BMM); Feb. 1, 1967 at New Orleans (SAG); Jan. 8, 1968 at New Orleans (TVG); Dec. 20, 1969 at New Orleans (RFC); Dec. 23, 1973 at Venice (SAG,RJS--2); Jan. 2, 1979 at Laplace (MW); Dec. 30, 1981 at Venice (SAG); Dec. 30, 1982 at Venice (SAG); Dec. 28, 1987 on north shore of Lake Pontchartrain (....); Dec. 31, 1987 at Venice (AS,GS). SUMMER TANAGER (Piranga rubra) Common migrant and summer resident The Summer Tanager breeds rather commonly north of Lake Pontchartrain and in the Pearl River bottoms. It is a common to sometimes very common spring and fall migrant elsewhere, and there are two or three summer records south of the lake, including June 11, 1982 at Lafitte NP (JR,RDP,NN,DM). The most interest such record is of one at Ft. Jackson on July 26, 1986 (DLD), which could have been of an early southbound migrant. The song is a warbling one which is somewhat like a very hurried Red-eyed Vireo running his songs together. North of the lake, it is likely to be confused only with the song of the Blue Grosbeak, which, however, while a warbler, tends more toward the Indigo/Painted Bunting kind of song. The tone quality is much like that of a robin. The call is a "tuck-it!" or "die-kert!". In Southeast Louisiana, it is important to familiarize ones self with the differences between female Summer and Scarlet Tanagers. Basically, the Summer Tanager is rusty in its overall coloration, while the Scarlet Tanager is mostly greenish, with dark wings. The color of the latter is similar to that of a female/young male Painted Bunting. As a migrant, the expected dates of Summer Tanagers are, in spring, April 1 to May 10, and in fall, August 25 to October 20. Extreme dates in spring are Mar. 29, 1974 ...(NN) and May 21, 1981 at Triumph (NN,RDP); in fall the extremes are Aug. 9, 1959 at New Orleans (SAG) and Nov. 10, 1986 at Venice (RDP,NN--5). There are 19 winter records, which will not be enumerated here, between Dec. 14, 1977 in Metairie (MM,NN) and Jan. 31, 1971 at the Bonnet Carre Spillway (RDP), but none since 1980. SCARLET TANAGER (Piranga olivacea) Fairly common migrant The Scarlet Tanager is a regular migrant, more conspicuous in spring because of the incomparable plumage of the males, which, however, molt into basic plumage, which resembles that of the adult female, before they migrate south. The result is that one does not see breeding (alternate) plumage males in fall, although some may still be molting. As indicated above, females in spring, and all Scarlet Tanagers in fall, are yellow-green with darker wings (see Farrand, 1983, for details). The song of the Scarlet Tanager bears approximately the same relation to that of the Summer Tanager, as the Yellow-throated Vireo does to the Red-eye; that is, it is noticeably "wheezier" (MM); it is not heard often. Expected dates in spring are April 5 to May 10, and in fall, September 25 to October 25. Extreme dates of occurrence are, in spring migration, Mar. 27, 1970 to May 25, 1991 at Grand Isle (RDP), and in fall, Aug. 30, 1959 at New Orleans (SAG) and Nov. 13, 1983 at Grand Isle (DM). Winter records are: Dec. 28, 1965 at Venice (JPG), Dec. 30, 1982 at Venice (NLN), and Jan. 2, 1984 at Grand Isle... WESTERN TANAGER (Piranga ludoviciana) Rare vagrant in fall and winter There are at least 23 winter records of the Western Tanager for Southeast Louisiana, but at least 16 of the records were obtained between 1954 and 1968, and there have been only one recent record, in spite of their regular occurrence (about one per year) in southwest Louisiana. This is one of the typical western vagrants, which reach this area, depending on one's prediliction, by migrating south to the gulf coast and then laterally, or by mirror-image migration. Although there are no records for October or April, Western Tanagers have been seen between September and May, the very first area record being of a bird collected near New Orleans on Mar. 19, 1898 (AA). The most recent records are of one at Lafitte NP on Apr. 10, 1992 (DM), another at Grand Isle on Apr. 24, 1992...., at one at Ft. Jackson on Jan. 15, 1994 (PW,JK,MS), seen again on Feb....., 1994 (SWC,DLD); finally Jan. 29, 1995, Ft. Jackson (CL?). Expected dates are November 15 to March 20, and Western Tanagers have been recorded between Sep. 16, 1960 at New Orleans (SAG) and May 11, 1933 at Grand Isle (WEN). NORTHERN CARDINAL (Cardinalis cardinalis) Very common resident If any species needs no further elaboration, it is the cardinal, or "redbird", common in residential backyards and nearly everywhere else, excepting mainly coastal marsh. Its "pretty-pretty-retty" song is one of the first learned. On New Orleans Christmas Counts, the cardinal underwest a steady decline (to one-fourth the numbers of the early 1960's) until 1974; it has seemingly increased somewhat since. ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK (Pheucticus ludovicianus) Fairly common migrant The Rose-breasted Grosbeak can be one of the more common migrants in late spring and in early to mid October. The spectacular black-and white plumage of the male, with an intensely red breat, make it one of the more conspicuous spring migrants. The song, which is heard occasionally in spring, is reminiscent of that of the American Robin. The call note, like chalk on a blackboard is very distinctive, except that the Black- headed Grosbeak gives a similar call. See the discusion under Black-headed Grosbeak, for the difficulty of distinguishing immatures and females of the two species. In spring, migrants are expected from April 15 to May 10, and in fall they are usually seen between October 10 and October 10. Extreme dates are, in spring, Mar. 23, 1957 and May 27, 199... at New Orleans (DM); in fall, extreme dates are Sep. 12,1983 at New Orleans (SN) and Nov. 17, 1985 at Grand Isle (AS,GS). There are six winter records, Dec. 19, 1957 at New Orleans (SAG); Jan. 27, 1962 at Mandeville (JH..); Dec. 23, 1965 at New Orleans (SAG); Nov. 28, 1971 at Grand Isle (RDP--2); Dec. 20,. 1975 at New Orleans (WW); and Dec. 23, 1980 at New Orleans (NN). There is also a Mar. 16, 1986 record of a femal from Grand Isle (NN) which may have overwintered. BLACK-HEADED GROSBEAK (Pheucticus melanocephalus) Rare vagrant Though a rare vagrant, there have been at least 22 records of this western counterpart of the Rose-breasted Grosbeak (the two are considered conspecific by some), spanning the period Oct. 5, 1980 (DS) to Apr. 7, 1980 (AH), though recent records have been less frequent than in the 1960s and 70s. Many of these records have been at feeders. Most individuals recorded in Southeast Louisiana are immatures and must be distinguished with great care from the Rose-breasted Grosbeak. Females are not especially hard to distinguish, because they have rather buffy breasts and thin streaks confined to the sides of the breast, and the head stripe may be buffy, in contrast to the Rose-breasted, which has a heavily streaked white breast. Immature male Rose-breasted Grosbeaks will be buffy on the breast and throat, but will have very fine breast streaking to none at all, and, of course, will have pinkish-red wing linings (see Zimmer, 1985). The calls are slightly different, with that of the Black-headed Grosbeak being a bit lower. Dated records are distributed as follows: Oct. (6), Nov. (2), Dec. (1), Jan. (5), Feb. (3), Mar. (2), Apr. (2). The most recent record appears to be Nov. 13, 1983.... BLUE GROSBEAK (Guiraca caerulea) Fairly common summer resident north of Lake Pontchartain, common to very common or abundant migrant The Blue Grosbeak nests faily commonly in second-growth pine flat habitat north of the lake. The key to finding it in breeding season is to learn its song, which it does not give in migration, so one must first learn it on the breeding grounds. A summer trip to St. Tammany or Washington Parishes will yield several individuals of this species. The song is a rapid, headlong warble, that becomes obvious once one eliminates Indigo and Painted Bunting, and Summer Tanager. The call is a lound metallic "chink!". In migration the Blue Grosbeak is often very common, and it is one of the regular winter "vagrants" near the coast. Although not usually seen in the large flocks characterized by Indigo Buntings, they are sometimes abundant in spring migration, as at Grand Isle on April 17, 1994, when over 50 were seen. Expected dates as migrants, are, in spring, April 10 to May 10, and in fall, September 6 to November 1. Extreme dates are, in spring, Apr. 1, 1961 (SAG) to May 28, 1991 (NN,MM,RDP,GC), both at Grand Isle. In fall the extremes are Aug. 26, 1981 (SAG) and Nov. 22, 1958 (SAG), both at New Orleans. There are eight winter records: Jan. 8, 1956 at New Orleans (CLE,SAG); Jan. 5, 1961 at New Orleans (SAG); Dec. 2, 1961 30 in the delta (BLM); Dec. 29, 1966 at New Orleans (SAG); Dec. 28, 1968 at New Orleans (SAG); Dec. 17-18, 1972 at Reserve (RJS,MW); Dec. 29, 1982 at Venice (RDP); Dec. 31, 1986 at Venice (DM,RDP....). INDIGO BUNTING (Passerina cyanea) Common to abundant migrant, locally an uncommon to common summer resident The Indigo Bunting is one of the most common and familiar transgulf migrants in both spring and fall, when up to 100 or more might be flushed from grassy fields, especially near the coast. Its buzzy call, often given in flight, is easily learned and might be confused only with that of the Yellow Warbler. The Indigo Bunting also gives a sharp, but not especially lound "pit" call less frequently. Its song, which is sometimes heard in migration, is a strident, "jumbly" call, with a distinct rhythm. The only song to be heard in Southeast Louisiana which resembles it is that of the Yellow-throated Warbler. The rendering in Farrand (1983) is not bad: "swee-swee-zreet-zreet-zwee-zwee- zay-zay-seeit-seeit." Indigo Bunting nests over much of the area, from south of New Orleans to the Florida parishes, where there is brushy, cut-over habitat, but is rather thinly scattering. The best way to locate it in the breeding season is to learn the song. There are about 30 winter records from Nov. 29 to Mar. 2, and although all of the records are since 1957, a Christmas Count at Venice is almost expected to yield one or more individuals. This regular wintering makes extreme dates in spring and fall almost meaningless. Expectected dates are March to November 5, with nominal extreme dates of Mar. 6, 1975 and Nov. 19, 1977 at New Orleans (JR). Migrants are common from March.... to .... and Sept. 15? to Nov. 5... PAINTED BUNTING (Passerina ciris) Common summer resident The Painted Bunting is a fairly common summer resident of brushy, shrubby fields and associated wood margins. It seems to occupy a slightly different niche from its relative the Indigo Bunting since they are rarely found together. One's impression is that the Painted Bunting may have increased in recent years relative to the Indigo Bunting, especially on the periphery of the city, but whether that is due habitat changes is not known. The song is a bright, musical warble, which is quite distinctive, though not everyone is able to learn it. It bears a slight resemblance to the song of the Orchard Oriole, which, however, is much sharper and more strident. The call note is a "chink", not as strong as that of the Blue Grosbeak. Although the adult male is unmistakeable, it takes more effort to become familiar with young males or females, which are greenish above and greenish-yellow below. Singing young males will sometimes surprise the observer, who expects to see the resplendant male. There are over 20 winter records between Dec. 18 and Feb. 3. Painted Buntings are expected between April 5 to October 20, but have been recorded between Mar. 11, 1917 (AMB) and Nov. 17, 1959 (SAG), both at New Orleans. DICKCISSEL (Spiza americana) Rare migrant, casual winter visitor Although the Dickcissel bred in eastern New Orleans in the 1960's, there are at best scattered hints of recent records of nesting anywhere in Southeast Louisiana (most recently in summer 1995 near Reserve (RJS). In migration, the Dickcissel is quite rare and is not recorded every season, apparently because it is a circumgulf migrant. In principle it could be found wherever there is mixed brushy and overgrown field habitat, such as south of New Orleans toward Venice, and at the west end of Grand Isle. The Dickcissel has a very lound "bzert!" call which it gives while migrating at night and in the day as well. Its song, of course, is a "dick-siss-el!". Dickcissels occasionally occur in winter, often at feeders, and there are eight such winter records: Dec. 1932? at New Orleans (HCO--coll); Dec. 1, 1957 at Port Sulphur (JPG,SAG); Jan. 13, 1961 at Reserve (JC--dead); Dec. 30, 1966-Feb. 8, 1967 at New Orleans (SAG); Nov. 23, 1968 at New Orleans (RDP,DS); Dec. 14, 1968-Feb. 16, 1969 at New Orleans (WW); Mar. 8, 1970 at Grand Isle (RJN); Feb. 26-Mar. 5, 1976 at New Orleans (NN); Jan. 3, 1993 at Venice (....). Although there are too few records to permit deriving expected dates, the extreme dates in spring are Mar. 26, 1970 to ...1991 (RDP,NN) and in fall, Sept. 19, 1994?.... to Nov. 9 1959 at New Orleans (SAG). Recent summer records include one in St. Charles Parish on June 6, 1992 (PY). RUFOUS-SIDED [EASTERN] TOWHEE (Pipilo erythrophthalmus) Common resident The towhee is a common resident anywhere there is shrubby, brushy habitat or undergrowth for cover, but is espeically common north of Lake Pontchartrain. Its distinctive drawn-out "wink!" or "to-whee" call, which is elaborated into a song in the breeding season by adding a trill at the end. Lowery (1974) points out that Audubon failed to find the Rufous-sided Towhee breeding in the vicinity of New Orleans in the 1820s. At least two races are present, P. e. erythrophthalmus, which is apparently only a winter resent, and P. e. canaster, which is resident (AOU Checklist, 5th ed.). According to the New Orleans Christmas Count data, this species declined from about 1960 to 1972, and has stabilized since. The recent splitting of P. erythrophthalmus into Eastern and Spotted Towhees raises the possibility of occurrence of the latter here. BACHMAN'S SPARROW (Aimophila aestivalis) Uncommon to common resident north of Lake Pontchartrain This species, formerly known as the "Pinewoods Sparrow", is found in moderate numbers in the pine flat habitat in the Florida parishes, usually in open growths of young pine trees with scattered to fairly dense brushy or shrubby understory. It can be found rather easily during the breeding season because of its beautiful, whistled song, which carries well. The song consists of a slurred whistle followed by a trill. In winter it is usually not too hard to find, though some tramping around through the wet broomsedge habitat will probably be necessary, since they spend a lot of time on or near the ground. For a species so strongly confined to pine wood habitat, it is surprising that there are three New Orleans records, two during migratory periods, when perhaps birds moving to or from breeding ground further north "over-shot" the pine flats and ended up on the south shore of the lake. The New Orleans records are: May 13, 1935 (TDB); Oct. 17, 1953 (JLD); and Dec. 23, 1984 (RJS,NLN,TD,MA). A slight caveat is perhaps in order, given the lack of distinctive field marks, but in the case of the New Orleans CBC record of Dec. 23, 1984, careful consideration was given by the observers to the possibility of Botteri's Sparrow. CHIPPING SPARROW (Spizella passerina) Common winter resident, uncommon summer resident north of Lake Pontchartrain The Chipping Sparrow is known in Southeast Louisiana primarily as a winter vistor; at that season it is seen commonly in small flocks and is often first located by its thin "spizella" call. It is more common in or near pine trees, and especially north of the lake, but can be found almost anywhere--at field or woodland edges, etc. It also breeds sparingly in the pine flats of the Florida parishes. It will be heard singing only in the nesting season, at which time it gives a dry trill which sounds very much like the song of the Pine Warbler, but lasts considerably longer--about three seconds. Expected dates are October 20 to about April 1. Extreme dates are Sep. 18, 1979 (JR) and Apr. 17, 1988 (NN), both at New Orleans. Summer records include July 1, 1940 at Lacombe (TDB), July 2, 1961 at Covington (SAG), and .....1990 at Sheridan (DM,GC,RDP). CLAY-COLORED SPARROW (Spizella pallida) Rare fall migrant The Clay-colored Sparrow is a fairly regular but infrequent fall migrant or vagrant, breeding in the northern Great Plains and winter from Mexico southward. Prior to 1977 there were four records of this sparrow, all between 1957 and 1967. Since 1977, and in the early years primarily through the efforts of Jack Reinoehl, there have been over twenty records, and it has become clear that this species is regular in coastal Louisiana in fall. The Clay-colored Sparrow presents a significant identification problem, especially in distinguishing it from the immature Chipping Sparrow. The key is the face pattern, which in the Clay-colored Sparrow shows a light brown auricular patch with a dark brown border on the front and top (due to the eye line). With the white superciliary stripe and a white malar stripe (defined by a dark malar line), the Clay-colored has a clearn-cut, well-marked look. The Clay-colored Sparrow also has a gray nape, which forms a sort of collar (though the Chipping Sparrow shows something of a collar as well). The Chipping Sparrow is much grayer, lacks the clean-cut look and the dark stripe at the front edge of the face patch, and has a contrasting gray rump. The winter adult retains the reddish cap, but it is streaked. Brewer's Sparrow is a remote possibility which ought to be kept in mind. The call is a thin "spizella" "tzee" note. Expected dates October 1 to October 25. Extreme dates are Sep. 11, 1979 (JR) and Nov. 26, 1957 (SAG), both at New Orleans. There are two winter records: Dec. 29, 1983 (JR,DM,MH) and Dec. 31, 1987 (DM,RDP), both at Venice. FIELD SPARROW (Spizella pusilla) Uncommon winter resident The Field Sparrow is recognized by it pink bill, eye ring, rusty cap, and rusty scapulars, giving it an overall rusty-faced look. Its call note is also a thin spizella "tsee", but a thin "tsit" like an orange-crowned warbler is also given. Although the Field Sparrow may breed in the Florida parishes, there is no evidence to substantiate this conjecture. Expected dates are November 1 to April 8, with extreme dates of Oct. 9, 1956 (SAG) and Apr. 17, 1958 (SAG), both at New Orleans. VESPER SPARROW (Poocetes gramineus) Uncommon winter resident Being rather rural in its habits, with a preference for pastures and roadsides, the Vesper Sparrow is not common near New Orleans proper. The Bonnet Carre is one of the better areas, but some can be found in the eastern extremes of the city. The Vesper Sparrow resembles the Savannah Sparrow, but lacks the white superciliary stripe, has a dstinct eyering, and has white outer tail feathers. The call note is also quite different. Expected dates are November 1 to April 1, with extremes of Oct. 1 in 1967 (JK) and in 1980 (MM), both in New Orleans, and Apr. 29, 1980 (JR), also at New Orleans. LARK SPARROW (Chondestes grammacus) Uncommon to rare winter resident Although the Lark Sparrow is occasionally found in mide-winter, and is not extraordinary on Christmas Counts, especially at Venice, it is usually seen in fall, from mid August into September. New Orleans records are unusual but not extraordinary. Expected dates are August 25 to about April 1, with extremes of July 20, 1902 at Diamond (HLB) and Apr. 24, 1983 at Venice (NN). LARK BUNTING (Calamospiza melanocorys) Accidental There are four records of this inhabitant of the Great Plains for Louisiana, all from Southeast Louisiana. Most likely a Lark Bunting in this area will be an immature, or an adult in basic plumage, unless a changing male was seen in early fall or late winter; it is very unlikely that a male would be seen in anything approaching breeding (alternate) plumage. The winter male does have a black throat and in fall or spring could have much more patchy black; the wing-patch is white. A female is heavily streaked below, with buffy wing patches, an eye ring, and a distinctive flat-headed look. The bill is quite heavy. The call is a distinctive two-note whisteled "choo-ee". The records are: Sep. 4, 1952 at Grand Isle (fide GHL--coll); Dec. 23, 1973 at Triumph (SAG,RJN--coll); Sep. 22, 1979 on Elmer's Island, Jefferson Parish )BC,NLN,PN); Sep. 21, 1991 at Fourchon Beach (MM,CS). SAVANNAH SPARROW (Passerculus sandwichensis) Common winter resident The Savannah Sparrow is one of the most common wintering sparrows; it also is the earliest to arrive in fall and usually the latest to depart in spring. Its favorite habitats are plowed fields, sandy short-grass fields, higher grass which is favored by the "grass sparrows", and other waste areas. The call most often heard is a distinctive thin "tsit" or "tseet", but Savannah Sparrows occasionally also give a "pit" which can be very confusing. In addition to the June record given below, there is a June 15 record from Covington by Allison (fide HCO), without year, and a Jun.1, 1975 record from New Orleans (NN). While expected dates are October 1 to May 1, Savannah Sparrows have been recorded between Sep. 23, 1895 and Jun. 5, 1886 at Madisonville (GEB--coll). GRASSHOPPER SPARROW (Ammodramus savannarum) Uncommon winter resident Although the Grasshopper is regular and widely distributed in winter, the frequency with which it is encountered is surprisingly low. To a considerable extent this may be because the extensive grass fields north of Lake Pontchartrain are not seriously canvassed on a regular basis. Most recent records seem to be what one might call "opportunistic," that is, simply random occurrences without any pattern--on roadsides, etc; their habitat requirements seem somehat less specific than those of Leconte's Sparrow, and especially Henslow's. It is true, however, that they do not occur in the fairly heavily- worked (by birders) broomsedge (Andropogon virginicus) fields in which Henslow's Sparrows are located north of the lake. This writer's impression is that they favor habitat more like that which is popular with Leconte's Sparrows, light, thin, calf-high grass, old fields, etc., perhaps not particularly wet. The Grasshopper Sparrow has apparently been declining in many areas, perhaps because of effects of mowing destroying nests and cover (Ehrlich 1988). Although the Grasshopper Sparrow was reported by Allison as breeding near New Orleans, and by Kopman as breen in Audubon Park (now much changed), there have been no hints of nesting since these early years of the century. Exepcted dates are November 5 to April 25, with extremes of Oct. 2, 1981 at New Orleans (DM) and May 7, 1972 at Venice (DN). HENSLOW'S SPARROW (Ammodramus henslowii) Uncommon winter reisdent of broomsedge fields north of Lake Pontchatrain The Henslow's Sparrow is the most sought-after sparrow of Southeast Louisiana in winter, due to the fact that it can only be found in its very specific wintering habitat, and then only with great effort. In some years, at least, it proves to be rather common in this habitat, which consists of fields with a high fraction of broomsedge (Andropogon virginicus) , but with scattered bushes and usually with a canopy of second-growth pines (loblolly, slash). There is a great deal of the habitat north of Lake Pontchartrain and Henlow's Sparrows have traditionally been found in such fields south and east of Covington and east of Abita Springs. Unfortunately, these birds are so hard to see even when one knows they are there, that observers have tended to find a good field and then to always return to it. Consequently one can only assume that given the right habitat there will be Henslow's Sparrows. The only way to see them is to repeatedly flush them from the ground in this habitat, finally getting enough of a view in flight to identify them, or to succeed in getting one to perch after being flushed several times. It requires considerable stamina, and not a little speed to succeed in this endeavor, since it is essential to reach the spot where a bird lands very quickly, lest it run away on the ground and escape. The fields are usually wet and the footing is always uncertain. It is not much of an exaggeration to say that a sine qua non is a sizeable group of chaseers, 5-10 in number. When flushed, Henslow's Sparrows can usually be identified by their dark faces which can eventually be seen in the brief periods of time the birds are in flight. Both Leconte's and Grasshopper Sparrows, which are short-tailed grass sparrows and which behave similarly to Henslow's, that is, they flight a short distance and then plunge into the grass (especially Leconte's), give a very much paler impression in flight, and Leconte's has a "pinkish" nape which adds to this impression. Bachman's Sparrow, which inhabits the same fields, is large and long tailed, and often will fly up to a tree. Savannah Sparrow is also large and long-tailed, often looks gray, and frequently will fly a long way before diving back into the grass. Swamp Sparrow is large and very dark reddish-brown, behaves differently, and often gives its loud call. Sedge Wrens are superficially of a similar coloration, but they will usually reveal their identity quickly by habits or by giving their soft "tchu" call as they land. Expected dates are somewhat uncertain because the fields where Henslow's Sparrows occur and usually only birded in January and February, but they arrive in late October and depart by the end of March, if not sooner. They have been seen between Oct. 15, 1956 at New Orleans (SAG) and Apr. 7, 1990 in St. Tammany Parish (AS,GS, et al). LECONTE'S SPARROW (Ammodramus leconteii) Uncommon winter resident Much of what was said above about the difficulty of flushing and identifying Henslow's Sparrow applies to this species as well. The main difference is that Leconte's is not confined to the broomsedge habitat, and, indeed, is rather rare in it, and is much more frequently encountered on a levee or in an old field on migration, especially in October. The best habitat seems to be rather fine grass up to several inches high which in winter has a very pale, light straw color, perhaps with scattered broomsedge. Unlike Henslow's Sparrow, Leconte's could be encountered south of the lake, perhaps all the way to the coast, wherever there is decent habitat. The east campus of UNO used to be a good spot, but that habitat is gone or transient. Protection levees in the eastern part of the city have often yeilded Leconte's Sparrows, though rarely in midwinter.When flushed, they appear much paler on the back, head, and underparts than Henslow's, but one has to be careful because Grasshopper Sparrows have very much the same look. Grasshopper Sparrows are slightly more likely to cooperate and perch on a bush, etc., after only a little chasing. Recently it has been possible to find Leconte's Sparrows near the river end of the Bonnet Carre Spillway, and it should be possible to find it east of Abita Springs in St. Tammany Parish, and other places in that area, if suitable habitat can be found. As with the previous species, it is difficult to assign expected dates, other than to say that arrival is in late October and most birds depart by the end of March. The extreme dates reflect the legendary difficulties of finding these birds, and their cousins above, but also birding patterns; they are Nov. 12, 1967 at New Orleans (JK) and .....1989 (RDP?)...(CS...). SHARP-TAILED SPARROW (Ammodramus caudacutas) Common winter resident of salt marsh habitat The Sharp-tailed Sparrow is a denizen of coastal saline marsh, usually dominated by "oystergrass" ("salt-marsh cordgrass"; Spartina alterniflora). It would be nearly impossible to see were it not for the fact that it can be "sqeaked-up" rather easily. The Sharp-tailed Sparrow closely resembles the Leconte's Sparrow, from which it may be distinguished by its dark nape (and also by a gray rather than white crown stripe, though this is often hard to see). The thin buzzy call note will often reveal their presence before one is seen. Although Seaside Sparrow is usually the only other sparrow in this habitat (perhaps Swamp Sparrow), Leconte's are occasionally seen in such marshy situations, so one should be careful. Expected dates are October 20 to April 15, with extremes of Sep. 19, 1976 at the Bonnet Carre Spillway (RH) and May 14, 1931 at Grand Isle (fide HCO). A more recent late record is May 9, 1992 at Grand Isle (MM,DM) There is one "out of season" record, June 7, 1919 on Freemason Island (ERK--coll). SEASIDE SPARROW (Ammodramus maritima) Common to very common resident As its name implies, the Seaside Sparrow is found only at or near the coast, in brackish or salt marsh, where it is quite common and conspicuous. Because it occurs on the edge of Lake Borgne and Lake Catherine, it may be found up Bayou Bienvenue toward Paris Raod and on the Intercoastal Waterway across from Michoud, in the eastern end of the city. The best place to find it is in the extensive marsh below Golden Meadow toward Grand Isle, along Fourchon Road, etc. The favored salt marsh habitat will include oystergrass (Spartina alterniflora) and perhaps black rush (Juncus roemerianus) . Two subspecies are resident A. m. howelli and A. m. f isheri, originally based on a specimen collected at Grand Isle on June 9, 1886. The Seaside Sparrow is an unmistakeable bird, being very dark, having a yellow patch in front of the eye, a white throat and dark malar stripe. Although it is quite sedentary, it might cause momentary confusion if seen away from its usual habitat. The rendition of the song given in Farrand (1983), "tup-tup-zhee", is plausible. FOX SPARROW (Passerella iliaca) Uncommon to rare winter resident The Fox Sparrow breeds in coniferous forests across the norther U.S. and Canada and down into the Rocky Mountains. Although it winters across the southern U.S., it is distinctly rare and irregular in winter in Southeast Louisiana, being absent in most winters. Fox Sparrows are common in winter in east Texas and in Alabama, "south to the black belt" (Imhof,....), and are more common in north Louisiana than in the southern part of the state. Occasionally, whether because of the wild food crop or because of weather conditions, Fox Sparrows are common all the way to the coast. The Fox Sparrow superficially resembles the Song Sparrow, but has an unstreaked head, rusty streaking on the breast, and a reddish tail/rump. The Fox Sparrow has been recorded between Nov. 3, 1968 at New Orleans (JK) and Apr. 6, 1894 (GEB). SONG SPARROW (Melospiza melodia) Common winter resident Although Song Sparrows vary somewhat in numbers, they are always at least fairly common in brushy habitat. Occasionally a Song Sparrow will give its elaborate song in winter, but more often it advertises its presence through its distinctive call, which has the character of a single note from a House Sparrow call. Expected dates are October 25 to March 25, with extremes of Oct. 6, 1888 at New Orleans (fide HCO--coll) and Apr. 30, 1915 at New Orleans (HHK). LINCOLN'S SPARROW (Melospiza lincolni) Uncommon to rare winter resident Although Lincoln's Sparrows are present in small numbers throughout the winter, they are thinly scattered and difficult to find. They are perhaps somewhat more common in late spring. Its thin buzzy "tzuk" call is a bit difficult to learn, but distinctive, somewhat resembling that of the Kentucky Warbler. Lincoln's Sparrow bears a slight resemblance to the Song Sparrow, but is easily distinguished by the buffy-yellow wash, with thin streaks, on its upper breast. Lincoln's Sparrow tends to forage nearer the ground than the Song Sparrow and will rarely be seen perched in the open, as Song Sparrows are wont to do. Expected dates are October 25 to April 20, with extremes of Oct. 13, 1991 at Grand Isle (DM,MM) and Apr. 25, 1961 (JR) at New Orleans. SWAMP SPARROW (Melospiza georgiana) Very common to abundant winter resident The Swamp Sparrow will be found anywhere there are wet fields or damp brushy habitat; it is arguably the most common of all the 15 species of primarily wintering "sparrows". Its sharp, somewhat metallic "chink", which is somewhat similar to that of the White-throated Sparrow (not, as the National Geographic guide says, similar to the call of the Eastern Phoebe) reveals its abundance in its marshy/swampy habitat. Another call note faintly resembles that of the Indigo Bunting. When flushed it can be identified in flight by its reddish back and wings. Expected dates are October 15 to April 20, with extreme dates of occurrence being Sep. 25, 1975 at Reserve (MW) and May 3, 1898 at New Orleans (AA). WHITE-THROATED SPARROW (Zonotrichia albicollis) Common winter resident The White-throated Sparrow is the one sparrow which the average city dweller is likely to see in winter in his residential backyard, along with cardinals, blue jays, mockingbirds, etc. It is, of course, fairly common wherever there is adequate brushy understory, and its whistled "old sam peabody,peabody,peabody" song, which it frequently gives in winter, is one of the first learned. There are two call notes, one a thin "seet" or "sweet", the other a sharp "chink" which resembles, but it weaker than, that of the Swamp Sparrow. There are indications of a steady decline in numbers on recent New Orleans Christmas Counts. Expected dates for the White-throated Sparrow are October 25 to April 25. It has been seen as early in fall as Oct. 4, 1957 at New Orleans (SAG) and as late as May 11, 1981 at New Orleans (DM) and May 30, 1986 at Madisonville (AKF--coll). There is, in addition, a summer record, July 30-31 at New Orleans (JR). GOLDEN-CROWNED SPARROW (Zonotrichia atricapilla) Accidental There is one unquestionable record of this species which normally winters on the west coast, from Grand Isle on April 20, 1936 (AD--coll). There is also a somewhat dubious sight record from the same locality, Oct. 26, 1957 (ART,EDL,EDJ). Most recently there is a probable record from Cameron Parish, Dec. 19, 1993 (MM). WHITE-CROWNED SPARROW (Zonotrichia leucophrys) Uncommon winter resident White-crowned Sparrows are usually found in rather open brushy habitat. They are often heard singing in winter, though certainly not as frequently as White-throated Sparrow, even taking into account their smaller numbers. The song is a buzzy version of that of the White-throat. Expected dates are October 25 to April 25 and extremes are Oct. 2, 1979 at New Orleans (JR) and May 5, 1977 at Reserve (RJS). HARRIS' SPARROW (Zonotrichia querlua) Casual winter visitor There are four records of this sparrow which normally winters as near to Southeast Louisiana as east Texas. It would most likely be found in the company of White-crowned Sparrows. The records are Nov. 23, 1956 at New Orleans (SAG); Maar. 24, 1959 at New Orleans (SAG); Jan. 12, Reserve (RJS--coll); Oct. 14, 1980 at New Orleans (JR). DARK-EYED JUNCO (Junco hyemalis) Uncommon winter resident [Slate-colored Junco] [Oregon Junco] Five species or subspecies of juncos with dark eyes were merged to form this species, the Slate-colored, White-winged, Oregon, "pink-sided", and Gray-headed. In Southeast Louisiana almost all juncos are "Slate-colored" ( J. h. hyemalis in winter here), but there are five records of birds identified as "Oregon" Juncos (J. h. oreganus) , from the far west. "Slate-colored" Juncos are erratic, ranging from nearly absent in some years to fairly common in others. Their ratlling "tic-tic-tic" call often advertises their presence before they are seen. The song is a trill somewhat like that of the Chipping Sparrow, but it is not heard in Louisiana. Expected dates are November 5 to March 25, with extremes of Oct. 5, 1961 (WGJ) and Apr. 9, 1983 (NN), both at New Orleans. The five records of "Oregon" Junco are: Nov. 9, 1957 at Ft. Pike (SAG,MEL); Nov. 4, 1967 in New Orleans ((DS,RDP); Mar. 22, 1969 at New Orleans (JK); Nov. 15, 1970.... (DN); and Oct. 15, 1972 at Ft. Jackson (RDP). MCCOWN'S LONGSPUR (Calcariujs mccownii) Accidental There is but one record of this longspur, the first for Louisiana: Nov. 30-Dec. 1, 1979 at New Orleans (JR,NN,m.ob.--coll). Photographs, by the author, of this bird appeared in Amer. Birds 34: 172 (1980). Longspurs can be anticipated in Southeast Louisiana only in severe winter weather, generally when north Louisiana and perhaps the Great Plains and Arkansas experience substantial snow cover. In general they are found in plowed to short-grass fields Identification of the longspurs is difficult, although they often provide opportunities for leisurely examination or repeated flushing. McCown's tail pattern closely resembles that of the Chestnut-collared, but the calls are distinct, with McCown's giving a rattle which is very similar to that of Smith's and Lapland Longspurs. McCown's and Chestnut-collared Longspurs have the most extensive white in the tail, so much that it looks like a white tail with black terminal band. Note, of course, that the longspurs will not be seen in breeding plumage, although both males and females may show some trace of such feathering. LAPLAND LONGSPUR (Calcarius lapponicus) Rare in severe winter conditions Except for the single records of McCown's and Smith's, all records of longspurs in Southeast Louisiana have been of this species, which, as indicated above, can be expected only when there is extensive snow cover or severe low temperatures to the north of us. All evidence is that the birds move back northward quite quickly; at the very least, they quickly disperse. The call is the standard "longspur" rattle, which, however, is not the standard call of Chestnut-collared, which Farrand (1983) describes as a "cheedlup" (and which this writer has not heard). Lapland Longspurs, as do Smith's, have only the two outermost tail feathers white. Most records of Lapland Longspur have been from the east campus of UNO; they span the period Oct. 6 to Jan. 22. The 12 records are: Dec. 20, 1936 at New Orleans (AD-coll); Oct. 6 and 30, 1974 at the Bonnet Carre Spillway (RJS,MW); Jan. 15-22, 1978 at New Orleans (JR,m.o.b--100+); Jan. 1978 at the Bonnet Carre Spillway (RJS--1); Nov. 29, 1979 at New Orleans (JR,NN); Jan. 12, 1981 at New Orleans (NN,DM); Jan. 14?, 1982 at New Orleans (JR,MM,DM,m.ob.); Jan. 16, 1982 at Laplace (RJS,NLN--500); Jan. 17, 1982 at Laplace (MB,DM,RDP,JR--2000); Jan. 1, 1983 at New Orleans (RDP--3); Dec. 16, 1983 at New Orleans (AS--1); Dec. 25-26, 1983 at Ne Orleans (MM,NN). SMITH'S LONGSPUR (Calcarius pictus) Accidental The only record of Smith's Longspur for Southeast Louisiana was a product of severely cold weather which penetrated deep into the south, and heavy snow cover to the north. At the same locality in Laplace, now mostly a subdivision, were 150 Horned Larks and 2000 Lapland Longspurs: Jan. 17, 1982 (MB,DM,JR,RDP--2). The bird in question was a winter male, with a white shoulder patch. [SNOW BUNTING (Plectophenax nivalis) ] HYPOTHETICAL The single record of this species for Louisiana is of a bird supposedly collected at Covington around 1900. See Lowery (1974). This record has recently (1985) been reviewed and rejected by the LOS Bird Records Committee. BOBOLINK (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) Uncommon to sometimes common spring migrant, rare in fall This gregarious species is usually find in sizable flocks in the spring, which are made conspicuous by the rather gaudy plumage of the males and the distinctive gurgling, metallic song. Although Bobolinks are rather scarce in fall, they have been found with some regularity in the Bonnet Carre Spillway, on Fourchon Road near Grand Isle, and near the west end of Grand Isle itself. Expected dates in spring are May 1 to 15, and in fall September 15 to 30. The extremes are, in spring, Apr. 1, 1933 (fde HCO) [also Apr. 11, 1992 at Grand Isle (JS)] and Jun 16, 1933 (AD), both at Grand Isle; in fall, Bobolinks have been recorded between Sep. 2, 1986 at Grand Isle (NN,RDP) and Oct. 7, 1978 at the Bonnet Carre Spillway (.JR,MB). RED-WINGED BLACKBIRD (Agelaius phoeniceus) Abundant resident Few birds are as familiar, and perhaps none are as common, as the Red-winged Blackbird. As many as 15,415 have been recorded on a New Orleans Christmas Bird Count (1980). Novices should note that the female Red-wing looks very different from the male, with here somewhat golden, heavily streaked underparts. Young males can be confusing because often the red epaulets are obscure. EASTERN MEADOWLARK (Sturnella magna) Common resident In spite of extensive habitat changes near the city, and despite some feelings to the contrary, the numbers of Eastern Meadowlarks on New Orleans Christmas Counts have remained essentially unchanged since the 1960s. They can be found wherever there are old fields, meadows, and levees. The slured two-whistled song is diagnostic, as is the ratter which this species often gives. WESTERN MEADOWLARK (Sturnella neglecta) Casual in winter Although there are 16 records of the Western Meadowlark, 10 of these were from the winter of 1960-61. There have been only two clearly independent records since the mid-1960s: Dec. 23, 1984 on the New Orleans CBC (SAG, et al), recorded again Jan. 8, 1985 (JR,DM,MM,RDP,NLN,PN); and .......(NN; RDP)[Dec. 6, 1988, US 11 (RDP?)]. The records span the period Oct. 9, 1960 to Apr. 13, 1961, both at New Orleans (SAG). An especially interesting record is Jan. 29, 1963 at Pilottown (SAG). For identification details, see Lowery (1974), but Western Meadolarks are generally paler, grayer than Easterns, and the bars on the tail feathers tend to be separated from each other rather than merging together. The best single field mark is the cheek patch, which is clear (gray,white,cream) in the Eastern and brown and streaked in the Western, and the yellow of the throat tends to merge up into the face more in the latter. The song, which is a beautiful rapid warble (and can be heard in almost all Hollywood movies) is very different from the clear whistle of the Eastern, and the call is a "whit" or "chip". YELLOW-HEADED BLACKBIRD (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) Casual to rare vagrant, mostly in fall There are upwards of 20 records of Yellow-headed Blackbirds between Aug. 30 and Apr. 20. The records are distributed as follows: Aug. (1), Sep. (5), Oct. (1), Nov. (1), Dec. (2), Feb. (1), Mar. (1), Apr. (3). Yellow-headed Blackbirds can thus be expected mainly in fall, often just after a cool front brings in a westerly airflow, and they are more likely near the coast, although half of the records are from New Orleans. There have been no records since 1983. The records are: Nov. 22, 1932 at Octave Pass (HCO); Mar. 11-13, 1958 at New Orleans (RF); Apr. 16, 1958 at New Orleans (SAG); Dec. 27, 1973 at Venice (SAG); Dec. 31, 1974 at Venice (DN); Sep. 11, 1976 at Leeville (RH,RJS); Feb. 6, 1977 in Metairie (DM); Sep. 4, 1977 at New Orleans (JR,MB); Sep. 8-14, 1978 at New Orleans (JR,NN); Sep. 22, 1979 near Grand Isle (BC,PNB,NLN); Sep. 18-20, 1980 (JR,NN--5...?); Oct. 2, 1980 at New Orleans (JR--2); Apr. 18-20, 1981 at Grand Isle (fide GS--100+); Aug. 30, 1983 at New Orleans (NN); Apr. 11....on Fourchon Rd. (JS)...1993 RUSTY BLACKBIRD (Euphagus carolinus) Uncommon to locally common winter resident The favored habitat of the Rusty Blackbirds is swamp, poorly-drained woodlands, lake edges etc., where it can be common in winter. Of course it is gregarious, so that its distribution is spotty, with a flock here and one there. Rusty Blackbirds give a high- pitched whistle, when flocking, that can be easily recognized. In winter Rusty Blackbirds are quite rusty and barred, and both sexes have yellow eyes. Expected dates are November 20 to April 10, while extreme dates, both from the last century, are Nov. 17, 1899 at Covington (HHK) and May 10, 1899 at New Orleans (AA). BREWER'S BLACKBIRD (Euphagus cyanocephalus) Uncommon winter resident Although still regular in winter, Brewer's Blackbird is probably considerably less common than it once was, though much of that decline may be due to the fact that the area once had a more rural character, with widespread cattle pens and corrals on the outskirts of town. Now it is possible to go through a winter without seeing one, though the advice for finding Brewer's Blackbird is the same as always, namely, to look in and around corrals, where Brown-headed Cowbirds and perhaps other blackbirds will be found. While the male is all black with a white eye (and is still largely black in fall and winter), the female is gray-brown with a dark eye. Expected dates of occurrence are November 20 to April 10, with extremes of Oct. 29, 1976 (JR) and Apr. 9, 1968 (RDP), both at New Orleans. GREAT-TAILED GRACKLE (Quiscalus mexicanus) Status unknown, range probably expanding There are two records of this close relative of the Boat-tailed Grackle, which is common in Texas and Mexico, consisting of a sight record on June 27, 1992 at Gheens (AS,GS) and of .....brought to the Audubon Zoo bird rehabilitation center on...., having been obtained..... BOAT-TAILED GRACKLE (Quiscalus major) Common to very common resident The Boat-tailed Grackle is the largest of the blackbirds in Southeast Louisiana, and is distinguished by its long keel-shaped tail. The male is black, the female a rich golden brown, especially on the underparts. Male Boat-tails can often be seen in spring and early summer, displaying on telephone wires. Unlike the Great-tailed Grackle, which is found from southwest Louisiana west to Arizona and into Mexico, and which has never occurred in Southeast Louisiana, the Boat-tail is confined to coastal regions, which in Southeast Louisiana means mostly south of Lake Pontchartrain and around the shores of the lake. The Great-tailed Grackle has a prominent light eye and very different vocalizations, one of which is a goldfinch-like "zwee" and another a "machine-gun" like rattle. COMMON GRACKLE (Quiscalus quiscla) Very common to abundant resident The Common Grackle is the smaller grackle with the irridescent head and neck; males and females are similar. They are very gregarious, often occurring in large, noisy flocks, which dominate a patch of woods and make it impossible to hear anything else. Farrand (1983) renders the main vocalization as a rising "tssh-skleet:!", which is close, if not perfect, and the call note is a lound "chuck!". Both species of grackles will often be seen feeding on the ground. SHINY COWBIRD (Molothrus bonariensis) Accidental It is with little enthusiasm (and even a sense of dread) that one reports the addition of the Shiny Cowbird to the list of the birds of Southeast Louisiana. It may not be fair, nor biologically defensible, to say that no cowbird is a good cowbird, but aided by the disturbances of man, the two species already present in the U.S. have done a great deal of harm. Without knowing what its host species might be in the U.S., and, for that matter, even without this species to worry about, it is difficult to feel hopeful about the survival of especially those species of migrants which breed in the U.S. and are declining because of habitat loss on their wintering grounds in Central America. Cowbird parasitism can only hasten their decline and a new species is unwelcome. Nonetheless, and not to the discredit of the observers who have found it in Southeast Louisiana, there are the following records: May 20?, 1989 on Fourchon Road (CS,PW,JS.....); .May 13?/14...1990 at Grand Isle (NLN); Howze Beach (DM,GC); Chef Menteur Pass (MM);...Apr. 17, 1992 at Grand Isle (DM,MM); Apr. 24, 1992?; (NLN--2); June 6, 1992 in Lafourche Parish (RJS, MW); May 2-3, 1995, Grand Isle (PW,CK?,CS;RDP). For identification details, see the article ...... The male Shiny Cowbird is built much more like a Brown-headed than a Bronzed Cowbird, but is a glossy blue-black all over (the Brown-headed Cowbird of course has a brown head). There is a good chance that this species, which has expanded its range from the West Indies and South America into Florida, will eventually become a regular part of the avifauna of this area. BRONZED COWBIRD (Molothrus aeneus) Uncommon to common summer resident, uncommon to rare in winter Although the Bronzed Cowbird was recorded for the first time in Southeast Louisiana in 1971, when one was at a feeder from April 12 to June 25 (fide Cucullu; WW,LW,RDP), it has become common enough that between April and August, 10-30 can be found on any occasion, simply by looking in the areas where they are known to occur. Up to about mid-August Bronzed Cowbirds are readily found along the Metairie lakefront between Causeway Blvd. and Elmwood Canal, in Lake Vista, and on the edges of City Park. They are probably regular during that four month period in other places in the area as well. In the past they have been regular on the westbank, where small numbers also regularly visited feeders in winer (FB), and in St. Bernard Parish, and they are regular in the Reserve area as well (RJS). Nesting was intially inferred from observation in Reserve (RJS) and New Orleans (JK), and on Aug. 11, 1978 a nestling was collected in Plaquemines Parish near Belle Chase and deposited at LSUMNS. Typical appearance of nesting individuals in April include Apr. 1, 1979 (JR), Apr. 9, 1981 (JR), and April 2, 1994 (RDP).. By mid-August most or all birds have left the breeding areas; whether they withdraw from Southeast Louisiana or simply flock together is not known. The largest numbers recorded are 100 near Gretna in September 1985 (FB) and 240 in Metairie on Sept. 13, 1993 (RDP). The song of the Bronzed Cowbird is a very thin, somewhat rising, buzzy whistle, which may be nearly inaudible to some with high-frequency hearing loss. The black, glossy males are easily recognized by their bulky shape which is exaggerated with they erect their ruff. The eye of the male is red, which is the source of their old name "Red-eyed Cowbird" and they have a rather sharp icterid bill. The females are a dull black, quite a bit darker than the brownish female Brown-headed Cowbirds. The maximum numbers recorded are 240+ in Metairie on Sept. 13, 1993 (RDP) and 100+ in the same locality on Aug. 30, 1994 (RDP). BROWN-HEADED COWBIRD (Molothrus ater) Common resident Although the Brown-headed Cowbird is common, and if during breeding season its course, grating whistled call seems everywhere, it is not really numerous and winter flocks are not huge. On the other hand, up to several million apparently winter in roots in Evangeline Parish. In fact numbers of Brown-headed Cowbirds recorded on New Orleans Christmas Counts have declined significantly since the 1960s. Whether this reflects only habitat changes is unknown. It is generally assumed that Brown-headed Cowbirds have played an important part in the decline of the Orchard Oriole in the New Orleans area, since it is apparently a favorite host species for the cowbird (and the Bronzed, as well). ORCHARD ORIOLE (Icterus spurius) Fairly common summer resident, common migrant Although the Orchard Oriole has declined greatly in the metropolitan New Orleans area, and is reported in a general decline, it continues to be fairly common away from the city. Although it nests in residential neighborhoods, in willows along canals, etc., it favors brushy habitat in migration. Once one of the most common of all migrants, especially in early fall, its numbers can still be impressive, with most individuals in immature/female plumage (many birds of the year). Young males in their first spring will sing and breed in the female-like yellow plumage with a black face and throat. Ehrich, et al (1986) report that 114 nests were found on a 7-acre tract in Louisiana. The song is a brilliant, strident series of rising and falling notes unlike any other breeding bird in the area (except, slightly, the Painted Bunting). Expected dates are April 1 to October 1, with extreme dates of Mar. 12, 1960 at Pont-a-la-Hache (SAG) and Nov. 11, 1962 at Venice. Although there are nine winter records from Dec. 10 to Feb. 14, plus some undated ones from the Reserve area (fide RJS), thre have been no recent ones, and it is perhaps the least expected oriole in winter. The records are: Feb. 14, 1896 at New Orleans (HHK); Dec. 10, 1956 at New Orleans (SAG); Jan. 1, 1964 at Reserve (RJS--3; coll); Dec. 19, 1964 at Reserve (RJS); Jan. 3, 1965 at Venice (BLM--coll); Feb. 2, 1965 at Reserve (RJS); Jan. 1-2, 1967 in Gretna (SAG); Dec. 19, 1970 at Reserve (RJS); Dec. 26, 1972 at Venice (SAG,RJN). A Nov. 1, 1987 record from New Orleans (DM) is the only other November record. BALTIMORE ORIOLE (Icterus galbula) Uncommon migrant, uncommon to rare in winter Once again the "Baltimore" Oriole, this species is a regular migrant in spring and fall, when it is sometimes common. It is also a fairly frequent winter vagrant, often at feeders. Because a high percentage of wintering birds are in immature or female plumage, it is important to learn to distinguish the two species, Baltimore and Bullock's. The female Bullock's has a (more extensive) white belly, a hint of a dark eyline, and the suggestion of a superciliary stripe. Females of both forms are larger and oranger than the female Orchard Oriole and distinct, sweet calls, in addition to the oriole chatter, which are very different from the Orchard's "chuck" (and a nasal whine). There are at least 30 winter records of "Baltimore" Oriole from Nov. 25 to early March. Expected dates, in spring, April 1 to May 10, and in fall, September 10 to October 10. In spring this form has been seen between Mar. 9, 1967 in Metairie (RDP) and May 24, 1968 at Reserve (SAG), while in fall the extremes are Aug. 19, 1957 (SAG) and Nov. 9, 1963 (SAG--5), both at New Orleans. BULLOCK'S ORIOLE ( Icterus .......) Uncommon winter vagrant Bullock's Oriole is slightly more frequently seen in winter than the previous species, most often near the coast but in New Orleans as well. It frequently occurs at feeders. Expected dates are September 15 to April 5, with extremes of Sep. 6, 1957 at New Orleans (CLE,RF) and May 3, 1969 at Grand Isle (KPA,JHe) SCOTT'S ORIOLE (Icterus parisorum) Casual vagrant in winter There are, at most, three records of this oriole of western desert scrub habitat, the final one being the best documented. Since there are several more records for the rest of Louisiana, this species is well worth watching for, in the field or at feeders. The records are May 6, 1962 at Thibodaux (ART), an adult male; Jan .29, 1967 at New Orleans (BMM,KM); Oct. 24-25, 1984 at New Orleans (NN,m.ob.--photo MM). [COMMON CHAFFINCH (Fingilla coelebs) ] HYPOTHETICAL The record of this species is of one seen below Venice on Dec. 27, 1978 (SAG,NN,RDP). The bird was seen well and heard calling. The question of the bird's origin is, of course, unanswerable. It may very well have been transported by ship to the Venice area, near the mouth of the Mississippi River. There has been one North American record since, which if accepted, might induce one to claim the present record as the first for the continent. PURPLE FINCH (Carpodacus purpureus) Erratic winter resident The Purple Finch is highly erratic in its occurrence in Southeast Louisiana, being present in sizeable numbers in some years--even swamping feeders, and being absent or nearly so in others. These irruptions appear to be tied to cone seed production in the norther forests (see Ehrlich, et al 1986), and seem to occur at something like four-year intervals. Reportedly, the Purple Finch has been retreating somewhat in the eastern U.S. in its competition with the expanding House Finch. Paradoxically, the females of the Purple, House, and Cassin's Finch are more distinctive than the males, with the Purple Finch having a bold face pattern (the exception being female Purple and Cassinn's Finches, which is not likely to be a problem here). The male Purple finch has very little streaking on its underparts and red on its crown, while the House Finch has extensive fine streaking, a brown cap, and less extensive red on the underparts. The song is a musical jumble somewhat like that of the Painted Bunting, and the call is a sharp "pink" which has the character of the individual notes of the song. While expected dates are November 25 to April 1, Puprle Finches have been recorded between Nov. 7, 1961 at New Orleans (BJD) and May 19, 1879 at Mandeville (fide HCO--coll). HOUSE FINCH (Carpodacus mexicanus) "Introduced"; Rapidly expanding into region Since the late 1980s, the House finch has begun to become a regular part of the avifauna of Southeast Louisiana. Interestingly, the expansion has come from the northeast, where the species had been introduced in the 1940s. The first area records were from Tickfaw, just at the edge of the checklist area, in February 1988, followed by two records on the ....., 1990 Venice CBC (male, RDP; flight call, KR). The House Finch is in the midst of an invasion of the gulf south, so that it will be very surprising if it has not become regular in Southeast Louisiana within five years, as it is very close to doing in Baton Rouge. The first New Orleans record was May 29, 1992 (DM) and during the spring of 1994, House Finches were heard singing in the New Orleans CBD (DM). House Finches have been breeding in the Slidell area since about 1991 (fide RC). Female House Finches are quite distinctive, lacking the face pattern (ear patch, eyeline) of the Purple Finch and being marked below with dense, fairly fine streaks. The male has a red "bib", considerable streaking below and a brown cap. The song and call note are similar to those of the Purple Finch, but distinguishable; see Farrand (1983) for some help. RED CROSSBILL (Loxia curvirostra) Accidental The only record of this highly irruptive boreal species, and the first for Louisiana, is over a century old: March 27, 1888 at Mandeville (CSG--coll). PINE SISKIN (Cardulelis pinus) Uncommon and erratic winter visitor Like the Purple Finch, the Pine Siskin varies enormously in its abundance in Southeast Louisiana in winter, sometimes common in invasion years, often absent. It was abundant during the winter of 1987-88 at feeders, for example. The surest way to find one in winter, aside from watching flocks of goldfinches at feeders, is to listen for the buzzy "scree" or "szree" not which Pine Siskins give both in flight and perched. Although similar to the call of the American Goldfinch, it is much harsher and and "burrier". Pine Siskins are usually found in flocks of goldfinches. Expected dates are November 15 (to December 1) to about April 1, with extremes of Oct. 22, 1992 (PY) and Oct. 26, 1980 (JR) at New Orleans and May 9, 1988 .....(DM). LESSER GOLDFINCH (Carduelis psaltria) Accidental The record of this species, which breeds in the Rocky Mountains and winters in Mexico, is of one at a Gretna feeder from Jan. 19 to Feb. 20, 1985 (FB--photo). A photograph appeared in Amer. Birdsd 39: 178 (1985). This was the second record for Louisiana. AMERICAN GOLDFINCH (Cardulis tristis) Common to abundant winter resident The American Goldfinch is also somewhat irruptive, but not to the same extent as the Pine Siskin or Purple Finch. Peaks in abundance tend to come 2-4 years apart. It feeds primarily on weed seeds, including ragweed, but also favors elm and maple buds in spring. Expected dates are November 15 to April 10, and extremes of occurrence are Oct. 23, 1878 in Mandeville (fide HCO--coll) and Apr. 26 in 1956 at New Orleans (SAG) and in 1969 at Venice (WW,LW,JK). There is, in addition, a very late "spring" record of June 14, 1933 at New Orleans (HCO--coll). EVENING GROSBEAK (Coccothraustes vesperitinus) Casual and erratic This highly irruptive species has invaded Southeast Louisiana on four occasions since 1962, before which there were no records, in the winters of 1968-69, 1972-73, 1978-79, and 1985-96. On that basis, one might conclude that invasions should occur at intervals of about 4-6 years. Some of the specific dates records are: Mar. 25, 1962 at Grammercy (BLM); Nov. 29, 1968-Apr. 13, 1969 at Covington, Slidell, and Reserve; May 4, 1969 at Venice (JK,JMcD); winter 1972-73 at Harahan (Waguespack; RDP); Dec. 29, 1973 at Reserve (fide RJS); Feb. 21-Apr. 23, 1979 ? at Mandeville (PS,JS,m.ob.); Feb. 28, 1978 at Covington; spring 1986 at Covington (JH). HOUSE SPARROW (Passer domesticus) Common to abundant resident The House Sparrow, which is largely confined to settled areas, was first recorded in Southeast Louisiana in 1874, according to Oberholser (1938). Maximum numbers were probably reached before automobiles substantially replaced horses for transportation. Numbers on New Orleans Christmas Bird Counts declined from the 1950's until about 1970. According to Ehrlich, et al (1986) geographical populations have begun to differentiate genetically.